T. Michael Nork, MD, MS

Dr. Nork is a founder, serves as Managing Member, and provides consulting on the posterior segment.

Dr. Nork is an Associate Professor of Ophthalmology at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health.  He is fellowship trained in ophthalmic pathology, and his clinical specialties include diseases, surgery of the retina and vitreous, and clinical electrophysiology.   

His research model incorporates electrophysiologic and histopathologic techniques to assess the effects of glaucoma on the outer retina (the photoreceptors) and possible neuroprotective mechanisms. In collaboration with the University of Wisconsin Department of Ophthalmology Fundus Photograph Reading Center, Dr. Nork grades retina photographs and optical coherence tomographs for toxicologic studies. He also provides surgical expertise on vitrectomy, subretinal injections and retinal laser photocoagulation for animal models of choroidal neovascularization.

To learn more about Dr. Nork's research, please click here:

Recent Publications


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Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2017 Mar 13;:

Authors: Weinlander EJ, Wang AL, Jaru-Ampornpan P, Altaweel MM, Nork TM

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Microglia in the primate macula: specializations in microglial distribution and morphology with retinal position and with aging.

Brain Struct Funct. 2017 Feb 17;:

Authors: Singaravelu J, Zhao L, Fariss RN, Nork TM, Wong WT


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Single ocular injection of a sustained-release anti-VEGF delivers 6months pharmacokinetics and efficacy in a primate laser CNV model.

J Control Release. 2016 Oct 31;:

Authors: Adamson P, Wilde T, Dobrzynski E, Sychterz C, Polsky R, Kurali E, Haworth R, Tang CM, Korczynska J, Cook F, Papanicolaou I, Tsikna L, Roberts C, Hughes-Thomas Z, Walford J, Gibson D, Warrack J, Smal J, Verrijk R, Miller PE, Nork TM, Prusakiewicz J, Streit T, Sorden S, Struble C, Christian B, Catchpole IR

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Safety and Biodistribution Evaluation in CNGB3-Deficient Mice of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a Recombinant AAV Vector for Treatment of Achromatopsia.

Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev. 2016 Mar;27(1):27-36

Authors: Ye GJ, Budzynski E, Sonnentag P, Nork TM, Miller PE, McPherson L, Ver Hoeve JN, Smith LM, Arndt T, Mandapati S, Robinson PM, Calcedo R, Knop DR, Hauswirth WW, Chulay JD

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Safety and Biodistribution Evaluation in Cynomolgus Macaques of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a Recombinant AAV Vector for Treatment of Achromatopsia.

Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev. 2016 Mar;27(1):37-48

Authors: Ye GJ, Budzynski E, Sonnentag P, Nork TM, Miller PE, Sharma AK, Ver Hoeve JN, Smith LM, Arndt T, Calcedo R, Gaskin C, Robinson PM, Knop DR, Hauswirth WW, Chulay JD

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Safety and Biodistribution Evaluation in CNGB3-deficient Mice of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a Recombinant AAV Vector for Treatment of Achromatopsia.

Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev. 2016 Mar 7;

Authors: Ye GJ, Budzynski E, Sonnentag P, Nork TM, Miller PE, McPherson L, Ver Hoeve JN, Smith L, Arndt T, Mandapati S, Robinson P, Calcedo R, Knop DR, Hauswirth WW, Chulay JD

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Toluene inhalation exposure for 13 weeks causes persistent changes in electroretinograms of Long-Evans rats.

Neurotoxicology. 2016 Feb 17;53:257-270

Authors: Boyes WK, Bercegeay M, Degn L, Beasley TE, Evansky PA, Mwanza JC, Geller AM, Pinckney C, Nork TM, Bushnell PJ


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Cone-specific promoters for gene therapy of achromatopsia and other retinal diseases.

Hum Gene Ther. 2015 Nov 25;

Authors: Ye GJ, Budzynski E, Sonnentag P, Nork TM, Sheibani N, Gurel Z, Boye SL, Peterson JJ, Boye SE, Hauswirth WW, Chulay JD


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Regional Choroidal Blood Flow and Multifocal Electroretinography in Experimental Glaucoma in Rhesus Macaques.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Nov 4;

Authors: Nork TM, Kim CB, Munsey KM, Dashek RJ, Ver Hoeve JN

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Implications of retinal effects observed in chronic toxicity studies on the clinical development of a CNS-active drug candidate.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014 Mar 26;

Authors: Eichenbaum G, Zhou J, Kelley MF, Roosen W, Costa-Giomi P, Louden C, Diprospero N, Pandina G, Singh J, Ford L, Moyer J, Nork TM, Ver Hoeve JN, Aguirre GD

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Response to aflibercept in patients with persistent exudation despite prior treatment with bevacizumab or ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration.

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014 Sep-Oct;45(5):394-7

Authors: Eadie JA, Gottlieb JL, Ip MS, Blodi BA, Danis RP, Chandra SR, Nork TM, Altaweel MM, Stern-Hogan BS

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Quantifying optic nerve axons in a cat glaucoma model by a semi-automated targeted counting method.

Mol Vis. 2014;20:376-85

Authors: Teixeira LB, Buhr KA, Bowie O, Duke FD, Nork TM, Dubielzig RR, McLellan GJ


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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jun 6;

Authors: Croft MA, Nork TM, McDonald JP, Katz A, Luetjen-Drecoll E, Kaufman PL

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Structural and functional effects of hemiretinal endodiathermy axotomy in cynomolgus macaques.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54(5):3479-92

Authors: Dashek RJ, Kim CB, Rasmussen CA, Hennes-Beean EA, Verhoeve JN, Nork TM


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Safety and Biodistribution of an EIAV-based Gene Therapy, RetinoStat®, for Age-related Macular Degeneration.

Hum Gene Ther. 2012 Jun 20;

Authors: Binley K, Widdowson PS, Kelleher M, de Belin J, Loader J, Ferrige G, Leroux-Carlucci MA, Esapa M, Chipchase D, Angell-Manning D, Ellis S, Mitrophanous K, Miskin JE, Bantseev V, Nork TM, Miller P, Naylor S

The effect of pentobarbital sodium and propofol anesthesia on multifocal electroretinograms in rhesus macaques.

Doc Ophthalmol. 2012 Feb;124(1):59-72

Authors: Kim CB, Ver Hoeve JN, Nork TM

Functional and anatomic consequences of subretinal dosing in the cynomolgus macaque.

Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Jan;130(1):65-75

Authors: Nork TM, Murphy CJ, Kim CB, Ver Hoeve JN, Rasmussen CA, Miller PE, Wabers HD, Neider MW, Dubielzig RR, McCulloh RJ, Christian BJ

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Massive Spontaneous Suprachoroidal Hemorrhage in a Young Woman with Cystic Fibrosis and Diabetes Mellitus on Anticoagulants.

Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2012;6(2):216-218

Authors: Nguyen HN, Nork TM

AMG 386, a Selective Angiopoietin 1/2-Neutralizing Peptibody, Inhibits Angiogenesis in Models of Ocular Neovascular Diseases.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53(4):2170-80

Authors: Oliner JD, Bready J, Nguyen L, Estrada J, Hurh E, Ma H, Pretorius J, Fanslow W, Nork TM, Leedle RA, Kaufman S, Coxon A

Structure/Function studies and the effects of memantine in monkeys with experimental glaucoma.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53(4):2368-76

Authors: Gabelt BT, Rasmussen CA, Tektas OY, Kim CB, Peterson JC, Nork TM, Hoeve JN, Lütjen-Drecoll E, Kaufman PL


Prevention of experimental choroidal neovascularization and resolution of active lesions by VEGF trap in nonhuman primates.

Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 Aug;129(8):1042-52

Authors: Nork TM, Dubielzig RR, Christian BJ, Miller PE, Miller JM, Cao J, Zimmer EP, Wiegand SJ


Relative contribution of VEGF and TNF-alpha in the cynomolgus laser-induced CNV model: comparing the efficacy of bevacizumab, adalimumab, and ESBA105.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Sep;51(9):4738-45

Authors: Lichtlen P, Lam TT, Nork TM, Streit T, Urech DM

Serial multifocal electroretinograms during long-term elevation and reduction of intraocular pressure in non-human primates.

Doc Ophthalmol. 2010 Jun;120(3):273-89

Authors: Nork TM, Kim CB, Heatley GA, Kaufman PL, Lucarelli MJ, Levin LA, Ver Hoeve JN


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Comparison of the distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein, heat shock protein 60, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in retinas from glaucomatous and normal canine eyes.

Am J Vet Res. 2008 Feb;69(2):265-72

Authors: Savagian CA, Dubielzig RR, Nork TM


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Multifocal visual evoked potentials in the anesthetized non-human primate.

Curr Eye Res. 2006 Oct;31(10):885-93

Authors: Maertz NA, Kim CB, Nork TM, Levin LA, Lucarelli MJ, Kaufman PL, Ver Hoeve JN

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Measurement of regional choroidal blood flow in rabbits and monkeys using fluorescent microspheres.

Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Jun;124(6):860-8

Authors: Nork TM, Kim CB, Shanmuganayagam D, Van Lysel MS, Ver Hoeve JN, Folts JD

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Effect of H-7 and Lat-B on retinal physiology.

Curr Eye Res. 2006 May;31(5):441-55

Authors: Kiland JA, Miller CL, Kim CB, Ver Hoeve JN, Gabelt BT, Peterson J, Nork TM, Kaufman PL

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Decrease of cone opsin mRNA in experimental ocular hypertension.

Mol Vis. 2006;12:1272-82

Authors: Pelzel HR, Schlamp CL, Poulsen GL, Ver Hoeve JA, Nork TM, Nickells RW


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Effects of reference electrode location on monopolar-derived multifocal electroretinograms in cynomolgus monkeys.

Doc Ophthalmol. 2005 Sep;111(2):113-25

Authors: Kim CB, VerHoeve JN, Kaufman PL, Nork TM