Leonard A. Levin, MD, PhD

Dr. Levin is a visual scientist and neuro-ophthalmologist at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health and the University of Montreal. He specializes in diseases of the optic nerve, and studies optic neuropathies and retinal ganglion cell death at the molecular, biochemical, and cellular level. He serves as a consultant to pharmaceutical companies in the areas of neuroprotection and its application to human disease, including glaucoma.

To learn more about Dr. Levin's research, please click here:

Recent Publications


Neuroprotection in Glaucoma: Animal Models and Clinical Trials.

Annu Rev Vis Sci. 2017 Jul 21;:

Authors: Almasieh M, Levin LA

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Polyester-Based Microdisc Systems for Sustained Release of Neuroprotective Phosphine-Borane Complexes.

Pharm Dev Technol. 2017 May 19;:1-32

Authors: Janus DA, Lieven CJ, Crowe ME, Levin LA

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Special Commentary: Early Clinical Development of Cell Replacement Therapy: Considerations for the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative.

Ophthalmology. 2017 Mar 29;:

Authors: Levin LA, Miller JW, Zack DJ, Friedlander M, Smith LE

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Axonal Degeneration in Retinal Ganglion Cells is Associated with a Membrane Polarity-Sensitive Redox Process.

J Neurosci. 2017 Mar 08;:

Authors: Almasieh M, Catrinescu MM, Binan L, Costantino S, Levin LA

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New Treatments in Neuro-Ophthalmology: The Role for Evidence.

J Neuroophthalmol. 2017 Jan 19;:

Authors: Kupersmith MJ, Miller NR, Levin LA


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Neuroprotection for glaucoma: Requirements for clinical translation.

Exp Eye Res. 2016 Dec 09;:

Authors: Levin LA, Crowe ME, Quigley HA, Lasker/IRRF Initiative on Astrocytes and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration Participants

Detection and measurement of clinically meaningful visual field progression in clinical trials for glaucoma.

Prog Retin Eye Res. 2016 Oct 20;:

Authors: De Moraes CG, Liebmann JM, Levin LA

Translational Pharmacology in Glaucoma Neuroprotection.

Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2016 Oct 18;

Authors: Levin LA

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Intracellular disulfide reduction by phosphine-borane complexes: Mechanism of action for neuroprotection.

Neurochem Int. 2016 Jun 2;99:24-32

Authors: Niemuth NJ, Thompson AF, Crowe ME, Lieven CJ, Levin LA


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Reactive Oxygen Species in Mitochondrial Optic Neuropathies: Response.

J Neuroophthalmol. 2015 Dec;35(4):446

Authors: Levin LA

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Glaucoma as a Neurodegenerative Disease.

J Neuroophthalmol. 2015 Sep;35 Suppl 1:S22-8

Authors: Danesh-Meyer HV, Levin LA

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Borane-protected phosphines are redox-active radioprotective agents for endothelial cells.

Redox Biol. 2015 Jun 26;6:73-79

Authors: Crowe ME, Lieven CJ, Thompson AF, Sheibani N, Levin LA

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Superoxide generation explains common features of optic neuropathies associated with cecocentral scotomas.

J Neuroophthalmol. 2015 Jun;35(2):152-60

Authors: Levin LA

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Induction of Neuronal Morphology in the 661W Cone Photoreceptor Cell Line with Staurosporine.

PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0145270

Authors: Thompson AF, Crowe ME, Lieven CJ, Levin LA


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Solving the lost in translation problem: Improving the effectiveness of translational research.

Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2012 Sep 11;

Authors: Ergorul C, Levin LA

Redox Proteomic Identification of Visual Arrestin Dimerization in Photoreceptor Degeneration After Photic Injury.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 May 17;

Authors: Lieven CJ, Ribich J, Crowe M, Levin LA

Retrograde and Wallerian Axonal Degeneration Occur Synchronously after Retinal Ganglion Cell Axotomy.

Am J Pathol. 2012 May 26;

Authors: Kanamori A, Catrinescu MM, Belisle JM, Costantino S, Levin LA

Ordering of neuronal apoptosis signaling: a superoxide burst precedes mitochondrial cytochrome c release in a growth factor deprivation model.

Apoptosis. 2012 Mar 13;

Authors: Lieven CJ, Thurber KA, Levin EJ, Levin LA

Superoxide signaling and cell death in retinal ganglion cell axotomy: Effects of metallocorroles.

Exp Eye Res. 2012 Feb 16;97(1):31-35

Authors: Catrinescu MM, Chan W, Mahammed A, Gross Z, Levin LA

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Optic nerve disease and axon pathophysiology.

Int Rev Neurobiol. 2012;105:1-17

Authors: Ghaffarieh A, Levin LA

High-content neurite development study using optically patterned substrates.

PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35911

Authors: BĂ©lisle JM, Levin LA, Costantino S

Author response: bayesian estimation of sensitivity of temporal artery biopsies.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53(2):586

Authors: Niederkohr RD, Levin LA


Clinical evidence for neuroprotection in glaucoma.

Am J Ophthalmol. 2011 Nov;152(5):715-6

Authors: Cordeiro MF, Levin LA

A cell-permeable phosphine-borane complex delays retinal ganglion cell death after axonal injury through activation of the pro-survival extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 pathway.

J Neurochem. 2011 Sep;118(6):1075-86

Authors: Almasieh M, Lieven CJ, Levin LA, Di Polo A

How should patients with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy be treated?

J Neuroophthalmol. 2011 Jun;31(2):169-74

Authors: Volpe NJ, Levin LA

Laser-based single-axon transection for high-content axon injury and regeneration studies.

PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e26832

Authors: Kunik D, Dion C, Ozaki T, Levin LA, Costantino S


Superoxide is an associated signal for apoptosis in axonal injury.

Brain. 2010 Sep;133(9):2612-25

Authors: Kanamori A, Catrinescu MM, Kanamori N, Mears KA, Beaubien R, Levin LA

Neuroprotection against superoxide anion radical by metallocorroles in cellular and murine models of optic neuropathy.

J Neurochem. 2010 Jul;114(2):488-98

Authors: Kanamori A, Catrinescu MM, Mahammed A, Gross Z, Levin LA

Serial multifocal electroretinograms during long-term elevation and reduction of intraocular pressure in non-human primates.

Doc Ophthalmol. 2010 Jun;120(3):273-89

Authors: Nork TM, Kim CB, Heatley GA, Kaufman PL, Lucarelli MJ, Levin LA, Ver Hoeve JN

Overexpression of Bcl-2 in vascular endothelium inhibits the microvascular lesions of diabetic retinopathy.

Am J Pathol. 2010 May;176(5):2550-8

Authors: Kern TS, Du Y, Miller CM, Hatala DA, Levin LA

In vivo imaging of retinal ganglion cell axons within the nerve fiber layer.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Apr;51(4):2011-8

Authors: Kanamori A, Catrinescu MM, Traistaru M, Beaubien R, Levin LA

Lost in translation: bumps in the road between bench and bedside.

JAMA. 2010 Apr 21;303(15):1533-4

Authors: Levin LA, Danesh-Meyer HV

Neuronal differentiation by analogs of staurosporine.

Neurochem Int. 2010 Mar;56(4):554-60

Authors: Thompson AF, Levin LA

Effectiveness of Novel Borane-Phosphine Complexes In Inhibiting Cell Death Depends on the Source of Superoxide Production Induced by Blockade of Mitochondrial Electron Transport.

ACS Chem Neurosci. 2010 Feb 17;1(2):95-103

Authors: Seidler EA, Lieven CJ, Thompson AF, Levin LA

Cell-autonomous generation of mitochondrial superoxide is a signal for cell death in differentiated neuronal precursor cells.

Brain Res. 2010 Jan 8;1306:142-8

Authors: Scott CJ, Seidler EA, Levin LA