Joanne Paul-Murphy, DVM, DACZM, DACAW

Dr. Paul-Murphy is board certified in the specializations of zoological medicine (DACZM) and animal welfare (DACAW). She is a professor at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis. Her clinical interests include companion zoological animals - small mammals (including rodents, rabbits and ferrets), birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. Her previous positions include Chief of Veterinary Services at the California National Primate Research Center and she is currently Chief of Service of the Companion Avian and Exotic Animal Health Service at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at UC Davis. She is Director of the Richard M. Schubot Parrot Wellness & Welfare Program and her research focus has been in avian analgesia, both opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatments.

Recent Publications

2018

Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).

Am J Vet Res. 2018 Dec;79(12):1239-1245

Authors: Guzman DS, Houck EL, Knych HKD, Beaufrère H, Paul-Murphy JR

Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).

Am J Vet Res. 2018 Dec;79(12):1239-1245

Authors: Guzman DS, Houck EL, Knych HKD, Beaufrère H, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE To evaluate thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). ANIMALS 16 adult (≥ 2 years old) cockatiels (8 males and 8 females). PROCEDURES Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.3 mg/mL) at each of 3 doses (0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mg/kg) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) were administered IM to birds in a randomized within-subject complete crossover study. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined before (baseline) and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were also determined. For the pharmacokinetic analysis, buprenorphine (0.6 mg/kg) was administered IM to 12 of the birds, and blood samples were collected at 9 time points ranging from 5 minutes to 9 hours after drug administration. Samples were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with commercial software. RESULTS Buprenorphine at 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mg/kg did not significantly change the thermal foot withdrawal response, compared with the response for the control treatment. No significant change in agitation-sedation scores was detected between all doses of buprenorphine and the control treatment. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL in all 4 birds evaluated at 9 hours. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Buprenorphine at the doses evaluated did not significantly change the thermal nociceptive threshold for cockatiels or cause sedative or agitative effects. Additional studies with other pain assessments and drug doses are needed to evaluate the analgesic and adverse effects of buprenorphine in cockatiels and other avian species.

PMID: 30457903 [PubMed - in process]

Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).

Am J Vet Res. 2018 Dec;79(12):1239-1245

Authors: Guzman DS, Houck EL, Knych HKD, Beaufrère H, Paul-Murphy JR

Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intramuscular administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).

Am J Vet Res. 2018 Aug;79(8):820-827

Authors: Houck EL, Guzman DS, Beaufrère H, Knych HK, Paul-Murphy JR

Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intramuscular administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).

Am J Vet Res. 2018 Aug;79(8):820-827

Authors: Houck EL, Guzman DS, Beaufrère H, Knych HK, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). ANIMALS 16 healthy adult cockatiels. PROCEDURES During the first of 2 study phases, each cockatiel received each of 4 treatments (hydromorphone at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg and saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [0.33 mL/kg; control], IM), with a 14-day interval between treatments. For each bird, foot withdrawal to a thermal stimulus was determined following assignment of an agitation-sedation score at predetermined times before and for 6 hours after each treatment. During the second phase, a subset of 12 birds received hydromorphone (0.6 mg/kg, IM), and blood samples were collected at predetermined times for 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma hydromorphone concentration was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental analysis of sparse data was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. RESULTS Thermal withdrawal response did not differ among the 4 treatment groups at any time. Agitation-sedation scores following administration of the 0.3-and 0.6-mg/kg doses of hydromorphone differed significantly from those treated with saline solution and suggested the drug had a sedative effect. Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 3 to 6 hours after drug administration in all birds. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that IM administration of hydromorphone at the evaluated doses did not increase the thermal withdrawal threshold of cockatiels despite plasma drug concentrations considered therapeutic for other species. Further research is necessary to evaluate the analgesic effects of hydromorphone in cockatiels.

PMID: 30058846 [PubMed - in process]

Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intramuscular administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).

Am J Vet Res. 2018 Aug;79(8):820-827

Authors: Houck EL, Guzman DS, Beaufrère H, Knych HK, Paul-Murphy JR

Lipoidal corneal degeneration in aged falcons.

Vet Ophthalmol. 2018 Jan 19;:

Authors: Moore BA, Paul-Murphy JR, Adamson KL, Dubielzig RR, Kern T, Gonzales BJ, Wolff P, Murphy CJ

Lipoidal corneal degeneration in aged falcons.

Vet Ophthalmol. 2018 Jan 19;:

Authors: Moore BA, Paul-Murphy JR, Adamson KL, Dubielzig RR, Kern T, Gonzales BJ, Wolff P, Murphy CJ

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To present a case series of idiopathic lipoidal corneal degeneration in falcons.
ANIMALS STUDIED: Five falcons including three peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), one prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), and one red-naped shaheen (Falco peregrinus babylonicus) were observed to develop slowly progressive corneal opacification that began at the temporal limbus and extended centripetally across the cornea over a period of years. Four of the birds were over 20 years old.
PROCEDURES: All animals underwent complete ophthalmic examinations. A red-naped shaheen underwent ocular imaging via spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Two peregrine falcons were euthanized due to declining health, and their eyes were examined histologically.
RESULTS: The opacities were pale and granular, with frequent vascularization associated perilimbally. Diffuse neutral lipid was observed in stromal cells throughout the corneal stroma of both clear and opaque areas of the cornea, sparing only the acellular anterior limiting lamina. Clusters of cholesterol crystals surrounded by macrophages were present in the mid-stroma. Fibrosis was evident in a subepithelial location, which separated the epithelium from the anterior limiting lamina. Ultrastructurally, diffuse vacuolization of the keratocytes was observed. No other ophthalmic or systemic abnormalities were noted.
CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that lipid degeneration occurs rarely in captive falcons of advanced age. The underlying cause is unclear. Though unsubstantiated, possible contributing factors include dyslipoproteinemia, corneal trauma, diet, and age-related alterations in corneal metabolism. The initiation of pathology at the temporal limbus, as well as slow progression, suggests that exposure contributes to the onset and progression of this unique keratopathy.

PMID: 29350449 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Lipoidal corneal degeneration in aged falcons.

Vet Ophthalmol. 2018 Jan 19;:

Authors: Moore BA, Paul-Murphy JR, Adamson KL, Dubielzig RR, Kern T, Gonzales BJ, Wolff P, Murphy CJ

2017

Related Articles

Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained-release Formulation of Meloxicam After Subcutaneous Administration to Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

J Avian Med Surg. 2017 Sep;31(3):219-224

Authors: Guzman DS, Court MH, Zhu Z, Summa N, Paul-Murphy JR

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Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained-release Formulation of Meloxicam After Subcutaneous Administration to Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

J Avian Med Surg. 2017 Sep;31(3):219-224

Authors: Guzman DS, Court MH, Zhu Z, Summa N, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
Meloxicam has been shown to have a safe and favorable pharmacodynamic profile with individual variability in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). In the current study, we determined the pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam after subcutaneous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Twelve healthy adult parrots, 6 males and 6 females, were used in the study. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after a single dose of the sustained-release meloxicam formulation (3 mg/kg SC). Plasma meloxicam concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Plasma concentrations reached a mean Cmax of 23.4 μg/mL (range, 14.7-46.0 μg/mL) at 1.8 hours (range, 0.5-6 hours), with a terminal half-life of 7.4 hours (range, 1.4-40.9 hours). Individual variation was noticeable, such that some parrots (4 of 12 birds) had very low plasma meloxicam concentrations, similar to the high variability reported in a previous pharmacokinetic study of the standard meloxicam formulation in the same group of birds. Two birds developed small self-resolving scabs at the injection site. On the basis of these results, the sustained-release meloxicam formulation could be administered every 12 to 96 hours in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots to manage pain. Because of these highly variable results, the use of this formulation in this species cannot be recommended until further pharmacokinetic, safety, and pharmacogenomic evaluations are performed to establish accurate dosing recommendations and to understand the high pharmacokinetic variability.

PMID: 28891702 [PubMed - in process]

Related Articles

Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained-release Formulation of Meloxicam After Subcutaneous Administration to Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

J Avian Med Surg. 2017 Sep;31(3):219-224

Authors: Guzman DS, Court MH, Zhu Z, Summa N, Paul-Murphy JR

2015

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Renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects of oral administration of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2015 Apr;76(4):308-17

Authors: Dijkstra B, Guzman DS, Gustavsen K, Owens SD, Hass C, Kass PH, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects of oral administration of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2015 Apr;76(4):308-17

Authors: Dijkstra B, Guzman DS, Gustavsen K, Owens SD, Hass C, Kass PH, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE To investigate renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects associated with oral administration of multiple doses of meloxicam to healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). ANIMALS 12 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive meloxicam oral suspension (1.6 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and 2.5 mL of tap water inserted into the crop by use of a gavage tube (n = 8) or the equivalent volume of tap water only (control group; 4) for 15 days. Urine and feces were collected 2 hours after treatment administration each day. Feces were evaluated for occult blood. Results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis and measured N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and whole blood clotting time were evaluated before, during, and after completion of treatments. Results of urinalysis and measured urine NAG activity were also evaluated. RESULTS Birds treated with meloxicam had a significant increase in number of WBCs and decrease in PCV from before to after treatment. The PCV also decreased significantly, compared with results for the control group; however, WBC count and PCV for all birds remained within reference ranges throughout the study. One parrot treated with meloxicam had a single high value for urine NAG activity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Meloxicam administered orally at the dosage used in this study caused no apparent negative changes in several renal, gastrointestinal, or hemostatic variables in healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Additional studies to evaluate adverse effects of NSAIDs in birds will be needed.

PMID: 25815572 [PubMed - in process]

Related Articles

Renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects of oral administration of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2015 Apr;76(4):308-17

Authors: Dijkstra B, Guzman DS, Gustavsen K, Owens SD, Hass C, Kass PH, Paul-Murphy JR

2014

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Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride following intramuscular and intravenous administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Aug;75(8):711-5

Authors: Gustavsen KA, Guzman DS, Knych HK, Petritz OA, Olsen GH, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride following intramuscular and intravenous administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Aug;75(8):711-5

Authors: Gustavsen KA, Guzman DS, Knych HK, Petritz OA, Olsen GH, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM and IV administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).
ANIMALS: 13 healthy 3-year-old captive-bred American kestrels.
PROCEDURES: Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.6 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Blood samples were collected at 9 times, ranging from 5 minutes to 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured by use of tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by use of least squares linear regression and noncompartmental analysis of naïve pooled data. After a washout period of 2 weeks, the same dose of buprenorphine was administered IV to all birds and blood samples were collected at the same times after drug administration.
RESULTS: Maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was achieved within 5 minutes after IM administration. For IM administration, bioavailability was 94.8% and elimination half-life was 92.1 minutes. For IV administration, steady-state volume of distribution was 4,023.8 mL/kg, plasma clearance was 49.2 mL/min/kg, and elimination half-life was 105.5 minutes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Buprenorphine was rapidly absorbed, and bioavailability was good after IM administration to American kestrels. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 9 hours after both IM and IV administration. These results, in combination with those of a pharmacodynamic study, suggested that the analgesic effects of buprenorphine could last at least 6 to 9 hours in this species. Further investigations of the duration of analgesic effects, multiple-dose protocols, and potential adverse effects of buprenorphine are warranted in American kestrels and other raptors.

PMID: 25061701 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride following intramuscular and intravenous administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Aug;75(8):711-5

Authors: Gustavsen KA, Guzman DS, Knych HK, Petritz OA, Olsen GH, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Aug;75(8):705-10

Authors: Ceulemans SM, Guzman DS, Olsen GH, Beaufrère H, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Aug;75(8):705-10

Authors: Ceulemans SM, Guzman DS, Olsen GH, Beaufrère H, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).
ANIMALS: 12 healthy 3-year-old American kestrels.
PROCEDURES: Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg) and a control treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) were administered IM in a randomized crossover experimental design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal stimulus. Adverse effects were monitored for 6 hours after treatment administration.
RESULTS: Buprenorphine hydrochloride at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg, IM, increased thermal threshold for 6 hours, compared with the response for the control treatment. There were no significant differences among buprenorphine treatments. A mild sedative effect was detected at a dose of 0.6 mg of buprenorphine/kg.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: At the doses tested, buprenorphine hydrochloride resulted in thermal antinociception in American kestrels for at least 6 hours, which suggested that buprenorphine has analgesic effects in this species. Further studies with longer evaluation periods and additional forms of noxious stimuli, formulations, dosages, and routes of administration are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of buprenorphine in American kestrels.

PMID: 25061700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Aug;75(8):705-10

Authors: Ceulemans SM, Guzman DS, Olsen GH, Beaufrère H, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Jun;75(6):527-31

Authors: Guzman DS, KuKanich B, Drazenovich TL, Olsen GH, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Jun;75(6):527-31

Authors: Guzman DS, KuKanich B, Drazenovich TL, Olsen GH, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IV and IM administration in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).
ANIMALS: 12 healthy adult American kestrels.
PROCEDURES: A single dose of hydromorphone (0.6 mg/kg) was administered IM (pectoral muscles) and IV (right jugular vein); the time between IM and IV administration experiments was 1 month. Blood samples were collected at 5 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours (n = 4 birds); 0.25, 1.5, and 9 hours (4); and 0.5, 2, and 6 hours (4) after drug administration. Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were determined by means of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a noncompartmental model. Mean plasma hydromorphone concentration for each time was determined with naïve averaged pharmacokinetic analysis.
RESULTS: Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were detectable in 2 and 3 birds at 6 hours after IM and IV administration, respectively, but not at 9 hours after administration. The fraction of the hydromorphone dose absorbed after IM administration was 0.75. The maximum observed plasma concentration was 112.1 ng/mL (5 minutes after administration). The terminal half-life was 1.25 and 1.26 hours after IV and IM administration, respectively.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with a short terminal half-life, rapid plasma clearance, and large volume of distribution in American kestrels. Further studies regarding the effects of other doses, other administration routes, constantrate infusions, and slow release formulations on the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride and its metabolites in American kestrels may be indicated.

PMID: 24866507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Jun;75(6):527-31

Authors: Guzman DS, KuKanich B, Drazenovich TL, Olsen GH, Paul-Murphy JR

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Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Feb;75(2):117-23

Authors: Guzman DS, Drazenovich TL, Olsen GH, Willits NH, Paul-Murphy JR

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Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Feb;75(2):117-23

Authors: Guzman DS, Drazenovich TL, Olsen GH, Willits NH, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive and sedative effects and duration of action of tramadol hydrochloride after oral administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).
ANIMALS: 12 healthy 3-year-old American kestrels.
PROCEDURES: Tramadol (5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) and a control suspension were administered orally in a masked randomized crossover experimental design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 hours after treatment. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal stimulus test.
RESULTS: The lowest dose of tramadol evaluated (5 mg/kg) significantly increased the thermal foot withdrawal thresholds for up to 1.5 hours after administration, compared with control treatment values, and for up to 9 hours after administration, compared with baseline values. Tramadol at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg significantly increased thermal thresholds at 0.5 hours after administration, compared with control treatment values, and up to 3 hours after administration, compared with baseline values. No significant differences in agitation-sedation scores were detected between tramadol and control treatments.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated oral administration of 5 mg of tramadol/kg significantly increased thermal nociception thresholds for kestrels for 1.5 hours, compared with a control treatment, and 9 hours, compared with baseline values; higher doses resulted in less pronounced antinociceptive effects. Additional studies with other types of stimulation, formulations, dosages, routes of administration, and testing times would be needed to fully evaluate the analgesic and adverse effects of tramadol in kestrels and other avian species.

PMID: 24471747 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Feb;75(2):117-23

Authors: Guzman DS, Drazenovich TL, Olsen GH, Willits NH, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration of butorphanol tartrate to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Jan;75(1):11-8

Authors: Guzman DS, Drazenovich TL, KuKanich B, Olsen GH, Willits NH, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration of butorphanol tartrate to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Jan;75(1):11-8

Authors: Guzman DS, Drazenovich TL, KuKanich B, Olsen GH, Willits NH, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).
ANIMALS: Fifteen 2- to 3-year-old American kestrels (6 males and 9 females).
PROCEDURES: Butorphanol (1, 3, and 6 mg/kg) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered IM to birds in a crossover experimental design. Agitation-sedation scores and foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus were determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment. For the pharmacokinetic analysis, butorphanol (6 mg/kg, IM) was administered in the pectoral muscles of each of 12 birds.
RESULTS: In male kestrels, butorphanol did not significantly increase thermal thresholds for foot withdrawal, compared with results for saline solution administration. However, at 1.5 hours after administration of 6 mg of butorphanol/kg, the thermal threshold was significantly decreased, compared with the baseline value. Foot withdrawal threshold for female kestrels after butorphanol administration did not differ significantly from that after saline solution administration. However, compared with the baseline value, withdrawal threshold was significantly increased for 1 mg/kg at 0.5 and 6 hours, 3 mg/kg at 6 hours, and 6 mg/kg at 3 hours. There were no significant differences in mean sedation-agitation scores, except for males at 1.5 hours after administration of 6 mg/kg.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Butorphanol did not cause thermal antinociception suggestive of analgesia in American kestrels. Sex-dependent responses were identified. Further studies are needed to evaluate the analgesic effects of butorphanol in raptors.

PMID: 24370240 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration of butorphanol tartrate to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2014 Jan;75(1):11-8

Authors: Guzman DS, Drazenovich TL, KuKanich B, Olsen GH, Willits NH, Paul-Murphy JR

2013

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Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Jun;74(6):817-22

Authors: Guzman DS, Drazenovich TL, Olsen GH, Willits NH, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Jun;74(6):817-22

Authors: Guzman DS, Drazenovich TL, Olsen GH, Willits NH, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antinociceptive and sedative effects and duration of action of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).
ANIMALS: 11 healthy 2-year-old American kestrels.
PROCEDURES: Hydromorphone (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg) and an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) were administered IM to kestrels in a masked randomized complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal test.
RESULTS: Hydromorphone at 0.6 mg/kg, IM, significantly increased the thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with the response after administration of saline solution, for up to 3 hours, and hydromorphone at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg, IM, significantly increased withdrawal responses for up to 6 hours, compared with baseline values. No significant differences in mean sedation-agitation scores were detected between hydromorphone and saline solution treatments; however, appreciable sedation was detected in 4 birds when administered 0.6 mg of hydromorphone/kg.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Hydromorphone at the doses evaluated significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for American kestrels for 3 to 6 hours. Additional studies with other types of stimulation, formulations, dosages, routes of administration, and testing times are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic and adverse effects of hydromorphone in kestrels and other avian species and the use of hydromorphone in clinical settings.

PMID: 23718647 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Jun;74(6):817-22

Authors: Guzman DS, Drazenovich TL, Olsen GH, Willits NH, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Mar;74(3):375-80

Authors: Molter CM, Court MH, Cole GA, Gagnon DJ, Hazarika S, Paul-Murphy JR

Related Articles

Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Mar;74(3):375-80

Authors: Molter CM, Court MH, Cole GA, Gagnon DJ, Hazarika S, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
ANIMALS: 11 healthy parrots.
PROCEDURES: Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg.
RESULTS: Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

PMID: 23438111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Mar;74(3):375-80

Authors: Molter CM, Court MH, Cole GA, Gagnon DJ, Hazarika S, Paul-Murphy JR

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Antinociceptive effects of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Feb;74(2):196-200

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Braun JM, Steagall PV, Keuler NS, Heath TD, Krugner-Higby LA, Brown CS, Paul-Murphy JR

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Antinociceptive effects of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Feb;74(2):196-200

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Braun JM, Steagall PV, Keuler NS, Heath TD, Krugner-Higby LA, Brown CS, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
ANIMALS: 10 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
PROCEDURES: Nalbuphine decanoate (33.7 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM in a randomized complete crossover experimental design (periods 1 and 2). Foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus was used to evaluate responses. Baseline thermal withdrawal threshold was recorded 1 hour before drug or saline solution administration, and thermal foot withdrawal threshold measurements were repeated 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after drug administration.
RESULTS: Nalbuphine decanoate administered IM at a dose of 33.7 mg/kg significantly increased thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with results after administration of saline solution during period 2, and also caused a significant change in withdrawal threshold for up to 12 hours, compared with baseline values.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Nalbuphine decanoate increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots for up to 12 hours and provided a longer duration of action than has been reported for other nalbuphine formulations. Further studies with other types of nociceptive stimulation, dosages, and dosing intervals as well as clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine decanoate in psittacine birds.

PMID: 23363342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Antinociceptive effects of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Feb;74(2):196-200

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Braun JM, Steagall PV, Keuler NS, Heath TD, Krugner-Higby LA, Brown CS, Paul-Murphy JR

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Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Feb;74(2):191-5

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, KuKanich B, Heath TD, Krugner-Higby LA, Barker SA, Brown CS, Paul-Murphy JR

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Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Feb;74(2):191-5

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, KuKanich B, Heath TD, Krugner-Higby LA, Barker SA, Brown CS, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
ANIMALS: 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
PROCEDURES: Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software.
RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.

PMID: 23363341 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Feb;74(2):191-5

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, KuKanich B, Heath TD, Krugner-Higby LA, Barker SA, Brown CS, Paul-Murphy JR

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Evaluation of portable blood glucose meters for measurement of blood glucose concentration in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013 Feb 1;242(3):350-4

Authors: Petritz OA, Antinoff N, Chen S, Kass PH, Paul-Murphy JR

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Evaluation of portable blood glucose meters for measurement of blood glucose concentration in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013 Feb 1;242(3):350-4

Authors: Petritz OA, Antinoff N, Chen S, Kass PH, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate agreement of 3 models of portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs; 2 designed for use with human samples and 1 designed for veterinary use) with a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).
DESIGN: Evaluation study.
ANIMALS: 52 ferrets.
PROCEDURES: Samples were analyzed with 4 PBGMs (whole blood) and a laboratory analyzer (plasma). Two PBGMs of the model designed for veterinary use were tested; each was set to a code corresponding to canine or feline sample analysis throughout the study. Agreement and bias between measurements obtained with the PBGMs and the laboratory analyzer were assessed with Bland-Altman plots. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate associations with venipuncture site by comparison of central (jugular) and peripheral (lateral saphenous or cephalic) venous blood samples.
RESULTS: Plasma glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer ranged from 41 to 160 mg/dL. Results from the PBGM for veterinary use coded to test a canine blood sample had the greatest agreement with the laboratory analyzer (mean bias, 1.9 mg/dL); all other PBGMs significantly underestimated blood glucose concentrations. A PBGM designed for use with human samples had the least agreement with the laboratory analyzer (mean bias, -34.0 mg/dL). Blood glucose concentration was not significantly different between central and peripheral venous blood samples for any analyzer used.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Significant underestimation of blood glucose concentrations as detected for 3 of the 4 PBGMs used in the study could have a substantial impact on clinical decision making. Verification of blood glucose concentrations in ferrets with a laboratory analyzer is highly recommended.

PMID: 23327177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Evaluation of portable blood glucose meters for measurement of blood glucose concentration in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013 Feb 1;242(3):350-4

Authors: Petritz OA, Antinoff N, Chen S, Kass PH, Paul-Murphy JR

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Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Feb;74(2):201-6

Authors: Geelen S, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Souza MJ, Cox S, Keuler NS, Paul-Murphy JR

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Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Feb;74(2):201-6

Authors: Geelen S, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Souza MJ, Cox S, Keuler NS, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) following IV administration.
ANIMALS: 11 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
PROCEDURES: Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) and an equivalent volume (≤ 0.34 mL) of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered to parrots in a complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after treatment administration; agitation-sedation scores were determined for parrots at each of those times.
RESULTS: The estimated mean changes in temperature from the baseline value that elicited a foot withdrawal response were 1.65° and -1.08°C after administration of tramadol and saline solution, respectively. Temperatures at which a foot withdrawal response was elicited were significantly higher than baseline values at all 5 evaluation times after administration of tramadol and were significantly lower than baseline values at 30, 120, and 240 minutes after administration of saline solution. No sedation, agitation, or other adverse effects were observed in any of the parrots after administration of tramadol.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots in the present study. Sedation and adverse effects were not observed. These results are consistent with results of other studies in which the antinociceptive effects of tramadol after oral administration to parrots were determined.

PMID: 23363343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2013 Feb;74(2):201-6

Authors: Geelen S, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Souza MJ, Cox S, Keuler NS, Paul-Murphy JR

2012

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Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2012 Aug;73(8):1148-52

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Souza MJ, Braun JM, Cox SK, Keuler NS, Paul-Murphy JR

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Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2012 Aug;73(8):1148-52

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Souza MJ, Braun JM, Cox SK, Keuler NS, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antinociceptive effects on thermal thresholds after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-15 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.
PROCEDURES: 2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only).
RESULTS: For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and -0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.

PMID: 22849674 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2012 Aug;73(8):1148-52

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Souza MJ, Braun JM, Cox SK, Keuler NS, Paul-Murphy JR

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Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2012 Aug;73(8):1142-7

Authors: Souza MJ, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Paul-Murphy JR, Cox SK

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Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2012 Aug;73(8):1142-7

Authors: Souza MJ, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Paul-Murphy JR, Cox SK

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
ANIMALS: 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex).
PROCEDURES: Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS: Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were < 40 ng/mL for the entire time period, but oral administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in mean plasma concentrations > 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

PMID: 22849673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2012 Aug;73(8):1142-7

Authors: Souza MJ, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Paul-Murphy JR, Cox SK

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Evaluation of a fracture pain model in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

Am J Vet Res. 2012 Mar;73(3):353-60

Authors: Desmarchelier M, Troncy E, Beauchamp G, Paul-Murphy JR, Fitzgerald G, Lair S

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Evaluation of a fracture pain model in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

Am J Vet Res. 2012 Mar;73(3):353-60

Authors: Desmarchelier M, Troncy E, Beauchamp G, Paul-Murphy JR, Fitzgerald G, Lair S

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To validate a model of postfracture pain in perching birds.
ANIMALS: 21 adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia).
PROCEDURES: In each bird, a standardized osteotomy of 1 femur was performed and the fracture was immobilized with an intramedullary pin. Degree of postoperative pain was evaluated 6 times/d for 4 days by use of 3 methods: an electronic perch for assessment of weight-bearing load differential of the pelvic limbs, 4 numeric rating pain scales for assessment of pain (all of which involved the observer in the same room as the bird), and analysis of video-recorded (observer absent) partial ethograms for bird activity and posture. Measurements obtained were compared with data collected before the surgery to evaluate the ability of these methods to detect pain.
RESULTS: The weight-bearing load differential was a sensitive, specific, reliable, and indirect measure of fracture-associated pain in the model used. Two of 4 tested pain scales (fractured limb position and subjective evaluation of degree of pain) were sensitive and specific for detecting pain and were reliable in a research setting. Interobserver reliability of the 4 pain scales was excellent. Partial ethograms were sensitive for identifying pain-associated behavior in pigeons, particularly during the first 2 days after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The fracture pain model was reliable and reproducible and may be useful for experimental studies involving postsurgical pain in pigeons. Weight-bearing load differential was the most sensitive and specific means of determining degree of pain in pigeons during the first 4 days after hind limb fracture induction.

PMID: 22369526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Evaluation of a fracture pain model in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

Am J Vet Res. 2012 Mar;73(3):353-60

Authors: Desmarchelier M, Troncy E, Beauchamp G, Paul-Murphy JR, Fitzgerald G, Lair S

2011

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Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

J Avian Med Surg. 2011 Sep;25(3):185-91

Authors: Guzman DS, Flammer K, Paul-Murphy JR, Barker SA, Tully TN

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Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

J Avian Med Surg. 2011 Sep;25(3):185-91

Authors: Guzman DS, Flammer K, Paul-Murphy JR, Barker SA, Tully TN

Abstract
Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with kaap-receptor affinities for pain management in birds. Butorphanol, a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor antagonist, is currently considered by many clinicians to be the opioid of choice for this use. However, despite studies reporting the analgesic properties of butorphanol in psittacine birds, dosing intervals have not been established for any psittacine species. The goals of this study in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and oral (PO) administration and to determine the bioavailability of butorphanol tartrate after oral administration. Twelve Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used in the study, with a complete-crossover experimental design and a 3-month period separating each part of the study. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 4) for each stage. Butorphanol tartrate was administered once at a dose of 5 mg/kg in the basilic vein or pectoral muscles or as an oral solution delivered via feeding tube into the crop for the IV, IM, and PO studies, respectively. After butorphanol administration, blood samples were collected at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes for the IV and IM studies and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes for the PO study. Because of the size limitation of the birds, naive pooling of datum points was used to generate a mean plasma butorphanol concentration at each time point. For each study, birds in each group (n = 4) were bled 3 times after dosing. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Butorphanol tartrate was found to have high bioavailability and rapid elimination following IM administration. In contrast, oral administration resulted in low bioavailability (< 10%), thus precluding the use of this route of administration for clinical purposes. Based on these results, in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, butorphanol tartrate dosed at 5 mg/kg IV or IM would have to be administered every 2 and 3 hours, respectively, to maintain plasma concentrations consistent with published therapeutic levels. To our knowledge, this is the first published study presenting the pharmacokinetic analysis of butorphanol tartrate in a psittacine species as well as the first study presenting pharmacokinetic analysis of butorphanol after oral administration in any avian species.

PMID: 22216718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

J Avian Med Surg. 2011 Sep;25(3):185-91

Authors: Guzman DS, Flammer K, Paul-Murphy JR, Barker SA, Tully TN

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Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2011 Jun;72(6):741-5

Authors: Keller DL, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Klauer JM, KuKanich B, Barker SA, Rodríguez-Ramos Fernández J, Paul-Murphy JR

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Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2011 Jun;72(6):741-5

Authors: Keller DL, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Klauer JM, KuKanich B, Barker SA, Rodríguez-Ramos Fernández J, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine HCl after IV and IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
ANIMALS: 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
PROCEDURES: Nalbuphine HCl (12.5 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to all birds in a complete randomized crossover study design; there was a washout period of 21 days between subsequent administrations. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected at predetermined time points for measurement of nalbuphine concentration by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by use of computer software.
RESULTS: Nalbuphine was rapidly eliminated with a terminal half-life of 0.33 hours and clearance of 69.95 mL/min/kg after IV administration and a half-life of 0.35 hours after IM administration. Volume of distribution was 2.01 L/kg after IV administration. The fraction of the dose absorbed was high (1.03) after IM administration. No adverse effects were detected in the parrots during the study.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, nalbuphine appeared to have good bioavailability after IM administration and was rapidly cleared after IV and IM administration. Safety and analgesic efficacy of various nalbuphine treatment regimens in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical palliation of signs of pain in psittacine species.

PMID: 21627518 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2011 Jun;72(6):741-5

Authors: Keller DL, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Klauer JM, KuKanich B, Barker SA, Rodríguez-Ramos Fernández J, Paul-Murphy JR

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Antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2011 Jun;72(6):736-40

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, KuKanich B, Keuler NS, Klauer JM, Paul-Murphy JR

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Antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2011 Jun;72(6):736-40

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, KuKanich B, Keuler NS, Klauer JM, Paul-Murphy JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine HCl administered IM on thermal thresholds in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
ANIMALS: 14 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
PROCEDURES: 3 doses of nalbuphine (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, IM) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) were evaluated in a blinded complete crossover experimental design by use of foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus. Baseline data on thermal threshold were generated 1 hour before administration of nalbuphine or saline solution; thermal threshold measurements were obtained 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after administration.
RESULTS: Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the thermal threshold (mean change, 2.4°C), compared with results for the control treatment, and significantly changed thermal threshold for up to 3 hours, compared with baseline results (mean change, 2.6° to 3.8°C). Higher doses of nalbuphine did not significantly change thermal thresholds, compared with results for the control treatment, but had a significant effect, compared with baseline results, for up to 3 and 1.5 hours after administration, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a thermal noxious stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Higher doses of nalbuphine did not result in significantly increased thermal thresholds or a longer duration of action and would be expected to result in less analgesic effect than lower doses. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine in psittacine species.

PMID: 21627517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res. 2011 Jun;72(6):736-40

Authors: Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, KuKanich B, Keuler NS, Klauer JM, Paul-Murphy JR

2010

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Effect of anesthesia, positioning, time, and feeding on the proventriculus: keel ratio of clinically healthy parrots.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2010 Mar-Apr;51(2):141-4

Authors: Dennison SE, Paul-Murphy JR, Yandell BS, Adams WM

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Effect of anesthesia, positioning, time, and feeding on the proventriculus: keel ratio of clinically healthy parrots.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2010 Mar-Apr;51(2):141-4

Authors: Dennison SE, Paul-Murphy JR, Yandell BS, Adams WM

Abstract
Healthy, adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were imaged on three occasions to determine the effects of anesthesia, patient rotation, feeding, and short/long-term temporal factors on the proventriculus:keel ratio. Increasing rotation up to 15 degrees from right lateral resulted in increased inability to measure the proventriculus in up to 44% of birds, meaning that the proventriculus:keel ratio could not be calculated from those radiographs. There was a significant difference between the proventriculus:keel ratio for individual parrots when quantified 3 weeks apart. Despite this difference, all ratios remained within normal limits. No significant effect was identified due to anesthesia, feeding, fasting, or repeated imaging through an 8-h period. Interobserver agreement for measurability and correlation for the proventriculus:keel ratio values was high. It is recommended that the proventriculus:keel ratio be calculated from anesthetized parrots to attain images in true lateral recumbency. Ratio fluctuations within the normal range between radiographs obtained on different dates may be observed in normal parrots.

PMID: 20402397 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Effect of anesthesia, positioning, time, and feeding on the proventriculus: keel ratio of clinically healthy parrots.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2010 Mar-Apr;51(2):141-4

Authors: Dennison SE, Paul-Murphy JR, Yandell BS, Adams WM