Dr. Reid is a Professor in the Departments of Ophthalmology and Vision Science and Biochemistry and Cell Biology at Texas Tech University. He has extensive experience as a biochemist and cell biologist in investigating the modulation of cell growth and wound healing processes. Recently, he has undertaken investigations concerning the structure/function relationships of neuropeptides as they relate to a variety of physiological functions.
Antimicrobial Coatings for Medical Textiles via Reactive Organo-Selenium Compounds
Molecules. 2023 Aug 31;28(17):6381. doi: 10.3390/molecules28176381.
Bleached and cationized cotton fabrics were chemically modified with reactive organoselenium compounds through the nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction, which allowed for organo-selenium attachment onto the surface of cotton fabrics via covalent bonds and, in the case of the cationized cotton fabric, additional ionic interactions. The resulting textiles exhibited potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus (99.99% reduction), although only moderate activity was observed against E. coli. Fabrics treated with reactive organo-selenium compounds also exhibited fungicidal activities against C. albicans, and much higher antifungal activity was observed when organo-selenium compounds were applied to the cationized cotton in comparison to the bleached cotton. The treatment was found to be durable against rigorous washing conditions (non-ionic detergent/100 °C). This paper is the first report on a novel approach integrating the reaction of cotton fabrics with an organo-selenium antimicrobial agent. This approach is attractive because it provides a method for imparting antimicrobial properties to cotton fabrics which does not disrupt the traditional production processes of a textile mill.
The Potential Antiviral Effects of Selenium Nanoparticles and Coated Surfaces
Antibiotics (Basel). 2022 Nov 23;11(12):1683. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11121683.
Modern epidemics quickly spread across borders and continents with devastating effects on both human health and the world economy. This issue is made worse by the various ways that infections are spread, including through aerosol, droplets, and fomites. The antibacterial qualities of various surface materials and coatings have been the subject of much research. However, the antiviral activity of metal coatings can be heavily influenced by imbalances in metal distribution and the presence of other metal impurities. As such, there is interest in developing novel surface coatings that can reduce the transmission of active viral particles in healthcare facilities. In recent years, the non-metals, such as selenium and nanoparticles, have acquired greater interest from the medical and scientific community for their antiviral surface activity. In this review, we will discuss the cellular and physiological functions of selenium in mammalian cells and against viral infections. We then discuss the mechanism behind selenium coated surfaces and their efficacy against bacterial infections. Lastly, we examine the antiviral activity of selenium, and the potential antiviral activity of selenium nanoparticles and coatings.
Efficacy of organo-selenium-incorporated urinary catheter tubing for in vitro growth inhibition of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and H. influenzae
Int Urol Nephrol. 2023 Mar;55(3):503-510. doi: 10.1007/s11255-022-03422-y. Epub 2022 Dec 3.
PURPOSE: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are of significant medical burden in cost, morbidity, and mortality. Experimental selenium-coated medical devices have demonstrated non-toxic in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity. While antimicrobial-coated catheters have shown efficacy in preventing CAUTIs, selenium has not been tested in this context. The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate selenium-incorporated urinary catheters for inhibition of uropathogenic bacterial growth and biofilm formation.
METHODS: Urinary catheters incorporated with 1% organo-selenium and standard (uncoated) catheters were incubated in vitro with E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, H. influenzae, and combinations of these bacteria. Growth was evaluated by colony-forming unit count and visualized with confocal laser and scanning electron microscopy. Organo-selenium catheter material integrity was also tested by soaking the tubing in phosphate-buffered saline for 12 weeks at 37 °C.
RESULTS: Organo-selenium-incorporated catheters demonstrated total reduction (100%) of in vitro bacterial growth and biofilm formation for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and a combination of these species when compared to control. P. aeruginosa growth was inhibited by approximately 4 logs (99.99%). Complete inhibition of E. coli growth was maintained after long-term phosphate-buffered saline soaking.
CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that organo-selenium was stably incorporated into catheter tubing and inhibited bacterial attachment, growth, and biofilm formation for multiple uropathogenic organisms. Furthermore, long-term soaking of organo-selenium tubing in phosphate-buffered saline did not show any decline in bacterial growth inhibition or biofilm formation. These findings suggest that organo-selenium-incorporated catheters may be advantageous in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections and warrant further in vivo and clinical evaluation.
An <em>in vitro</em> Study of Betadine's Ability to Eliminate Live Bacteria on the Eye: Should It Be Used for Protection against Endophthalmitis?
Antibiotics (Basel). 2022 Nov 4;11(11):1549. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11111549.
BACKGROUND: Povidone-iodide (Betadine) is an antiseptic that is applied topically and has many uses in the medical community, such as in wound care and pre- and post-operative surgical procedures. This study was done to measure the effectiveness of Betadine solutions in inhibiting the growth of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
METHODS: The ability of 2.5 and 10% Betadine solutions to inhibit bacterial growth was measured against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. We grew the bacteria independently and together to simulate a hospital environment.
RESULTS: All the bacteria showed zones of inhibition. However, discs were also tested for live bacteria using the colony-forming unit assay. Complete killing was only seen for S. aureus with the 10% Betadine solution. All other bacteria showed growth on the disc.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed several things. First, the zone of inhibition assay does not give an accurate assessment of antimicrobial properties when used alone and should be followed by a colony-forming unit assay. Second, 2.5% and 5% Betadine do not have effective antimicrobial properties against any of the bacteria tested, and 10% Betadine is only effective against S. aureus and not effective against the other bacteria tested.
Organo-selenium containing dental sealant inhibits biofilm formation by oral bacteria
Dent Mater. 2022 May;38(5):848-857. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2022.04.006. Epub 2022 Apr 12.
OBJECTIVE: Dental plaque is a complex structure (called a biofilm) that is produced by a community of oral bacteria. As microorganisms accumulate in the oral cavity, bacteria can assemble into biofilms that protect them from antibiotics and disinfectants, which contribute to dental cavities and oral infections that acts as the seed for further infections throughout the body. Therefore, there is great interest in developing dental sealants that can effectively eliminate biofilms formed from an assortment of oral bacteria species.
METHODS: In previous papers, it was shown that both in vivo and in vitro use of organo-selenium dental sealants have the potential to be an effective method for preventing dental caries and plaque formation. However, our previous in vitro study only examined the effect of the organo-selenium sealants on Streptococcus mutans and salivarius. Since that time, this organo-selenium sealant has been changed to improve its curing time.
RESULTS: We showed a selenium containing sealant (SeLECT-DefenseTM) can completely eliminate biofilm formation on the sealant at selenium concentrations of 0.25% and higher, by S. salivarius, S. sanguinis, or S. mutans, individually or in combination. This selenium containing sealant can also completely inhibit the same bacteria from growing under the sealant, while control sealant cannot. The selenium containing sealant was tested for stability and it was found to still kill these same bacteria after soaking for the equivalent of one year in PBS (pH 7.4). It was also found that the combination of the three bacteria were also killed by the selenium sealant, thus ruling out potential synergism of the bacteria in forming resistance.
SIGNIFICANCE: The following study showed that this modified selenium dental sealant effectively eliminates species of bacteria both on and under the dental sealant.
Effects of Dexamethasone on DNA Synthesis in Lens Epithelial Cells Are Dependent on Cell Type and Growth Factor
Curr Eye Res. 2022 Jul;47(7):1009-1015. doi: 10.1080/02713683.2022.2052106. Epub 2022 Apr 13.
PURPOSE: To determine the factors that influence the ability of dexamethasone (dex) to inhibit or stimulate the growth of lens epithelial cells.
METHOD: Different growth factors with or without dex (10-6 M) were added to quiescent cultures of two clones of Nakano mouse lens epithelial cells (NK11) in serum-free medium. DNA synthesis was then measured after 8-12 hours by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine.
RESULTS: Dex was found to both stimulate and inhibit mitogen-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of cultured mouse lens epithelial cells. Enhancement or repression by dex was found to depend on the growth factor used to stimulate the quiescent cell. EGF and insulin were consistently inhibited with dex. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and retinoblastoma-derived growth factor (RbDGF) were both enhanced and inhibited by dex, depending on the growth factor concentration and the cell clone used for the experiment. Additionally, RbDGF protects against the dex inhibition of insulin stimulation, but not the inhibition of EGF stimulation. Progesterone, an inhibitor of the activation of the glucocorticoid receptor, blocks the dex inhibitory effect on the EGF and insulin stimulation of DNA synthesis. The ability of progesterone to affect the dex inhibition is consistent with the dex receptor modulating DNA synthesis. The dex effect on DNA synthesis, either stimulatory or inhibitory, was still seen if dex was added as late as 10 hours after the growth factor.
CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that dex reduces the overall growth and activity of lens epithelial cells in vitro. This result provides insight into the risk of developing posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSC) in patients on oral glucocorticoid therapy. Understanding the basic mechanisms by which steroids mediate lens cell growth may provide the ability to more accurately predict who will develop PSC. The present studies show the difference in the effect of dex from lens cell to lens cell, but, more importantly, suggest a pattern of dependent variables that might prove useful in such predictions.
The Use of an Organo-Selenium Peptide to Develop New Antimicrobials That Target a Specific Bacteria
Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 May 21;10(6):611. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10060611.
This study examines the use of a covalently selenium-bonded peptide and phage that binds to the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen for the targeting and killing of E. coli expressing this surface antigen. Using a Ph.D.-12 phage-display library for affinity selection of the phage which would bind the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, a phage displaying a peptide that binds the F1 antigen with high affinity and specificity was identified. Selenium was then covalently attached to the display phage and the corresponding F1-antigen-binding peptide. Both the phage and peptides with selenium covalently attached retained their binding specificity for the Y. pestis F1 antigen. The phage or peptide not labeled with selenium did not kill the targeted bacteria, while the phage or peptide labeled with selenium did. In addition, the seleno-peptide, expressing the F1 targeting sequence only, killed cells expressing the F1 antigen but not the parent strain that did not express the F1 antigen. Specifically, the seleno-peptide could kill eight logs of bacteria in less than two hours at a 10-µM concentration. These results demonstrate a novel approach for the development of an antibacterial agent that can target a specific bacterial pathogen for destruction through the use of covalently attached selenium and will not affect other bacteria.
Organo-Selenium-Containing Polyester Bandage Inhibits Bacterial Biofilm Growth on the Bandage and in the Wound
Biomedicines. 2020 Mar 17;8(3):62. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines8030062.
The dressing material of a wound plays a key role since bacteria can live in the bandage and keep re-infecting the wound, thus a bandage is needed that blocks biofilm in the bandage. Using an in vivo wound biofilm model, we examined the effectiveness of an organo-selenium (OS)-coated polyester dressing to inhibit the growth of bacteria in a wound. Staphylococcus aureus (as well as MRSA, Methicillin resistant Staph aureus), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were chosen for the wound infection study. All the bacteria were enumerated in the wound dressing and in the wound tissue under the dressing. Using colony-forming unit (CFU) assays, over 7 logs of inhibition (100%) was found for all the bacterial strains on the material of the OS-coated wound dressing and in the tissue under that dressing. Confocal laser scanning microscopy along with IVIS spectrum in vivo imaging confirmed the CFU results. Thus, the dressing acts as a reservoir for a biofilm, which causes wound infection. The same results were obtained after soaking the dressing in PBS at 37 °C for three months before use. These results suggest that an OS coating on polyester dressing is both effective and durable in blocking wound infection.
Comparative Efficacy in Preventing Plaque Formation around Pit and Fissure Sealants: A Clinical Trial
J Contemp Dent Pract. 2019 May 1;20(5):531-536.
AIM: The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical performance of an organo-selenium-containing pit and fissure sealant with that of a selenium-free sealant for clinical retention and prevention of plaque and caries development around the sealants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following an in vitro study confirming the antimicrobial effect of an organo-selenium-containing pit/fissure sealant [DenteShield™ (DS)], 120 adolescents (7-20 years old) at varying caries risk status had DS sealant applied to a single tooth on the left or the right side of the dentition and UltraSeal™ XT Plus (UXT) on a corresponding tooth on the opposite side. Sealants' assessment was performed quarterly for 1 year for clinical retention, plaque, and caries formation around the sealant. Each sealant lost was replaced but considered as a failure in further analysis. McNemar's test was used to statistically analyze the outcome variables at each assessment time point.
RESULTS: While 7% and 12% plaque growth was observed around the UXT sealant at 9th and 12th months, respectively, DS exhibited 100% prevention of plaque growth. Both sealants exhibited 100% caries prevention. Clinical retention did not significantly differ between DS and UXT at all assessment time points except at 12 months when DS showed statistically significantly (p < 0.001) better retention (96%) than UXT (81%).
CONCLUSION: In this study, while both sealants are equally effective in caries prevention, DS completely prevented plaque growth around it with better clinical retention than UXT that offered only limited protection against plaque growth.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Being antimicrobial, DS pit and fissure sealant may be the best sealant option for patients whose caries risk status is due to poor oral hygiene.
Efficacy of a silver colloidal gel against selected oral bacteria <em>in vitro</em>
F1000Res. 2019 Mar 7;8:267. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.17707.1. eCollection 2019.
Background: It is necessary to develop new strategies to protect against bacteria such as S treptococcus mutans, S treptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius, which contribute to tooth decay and plaque formation. Our current study investigated the efficacy of a colloidal silver gel in inhibiting biofilm formation by these principal oral bacteria , in vitro. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a colloidal silver gel formulation for inhibiting bacterial biofilm formation (Ag-gel) by the principal bacteria that cause plaque formation and tooth decay. Methods: The effect of Ag-gel on viability of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius was assessed by quantifying their colony forming units (CFU) in presence or absence of the test gel. The effect of this formulation on biofilm-forming ability of these bacteria was studied through scanning electron microscopy. Results: Using the CFU assays, over 6 logs of inhibition (100%) were found for S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius for the Ag-gel-treated bacteria when compared with the control gel. In addition, the Ag-gel also inhibited biofilm formation by these three bacteria mixed together. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Conclusions: The Ag-gel was effective in preventing biofilm formation by S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius. This Ag-gel should be tested for the ability to block plaque formation in the mouth, through its use as a tooth paste.
The Effect of Topical Substance-P Plus Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) on Epithelial Healing After Photorefractive Keratectomy in Rabbits
Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2018 Jan 23;7(1):12. doi: 10.1167/tvst.7.1.12. eCollection 2018 Jan.
PURPOSE: To determine whether topical Substance-P (SP) plus insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can improve corneal healing after photorefractive surface ablation in a rabbit.
METHODS: After a 9.0-mm corneal de-epithelialization using a combination of chemical (18% alcohol) and mechanical debridement, excimer photorefractive surface ablation was performed bilaterally in eight rabbits (16 eyes) with an 8.0-mm ablation zone and 70-μm depth. The right eye was treated with SP (250 μg/mL) and IGF-1 (25 ng/mL) in hyaluronic acid, one drop twice a day, and the other eye treated with only hyaluronic acid. The epithelial healing process was documented photographically twice a day until healing was complete. Six rabbits were sacrificed 6 weeks after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and corneas examined histologically.
RESULTS: Seven of eight rabbit eyes treated with SP/IGF-1 healed in a shorter time than the untreated eye. For rabbit #6, both eyes healed at the same time. The average healing time (total time until wound closure) for the treated eyes was 99 hours, while the average healing time for the untreated eyes was 170 hours (P = 0.0490). A persistent epithelial defect was found in two of the nontreated eyes but none in the treated eyes. Corneal pathology showed some degree of epithelial separation in the central corneal wound in three out of six nontreated eyes and in just the treated eye of rabbit #6.
CONCLUSION: Topical SP plus IGF-1 increases the epithelial healing rate after PRK. There may have been beneficial effects upon cell adhesion as well.
TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: Better and faster healing.
Organo-Selenium Coatings Inhibit Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacterial Attachment to Ophthalmic Scleral Buckle Material
Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2017 Sep 1;6(5):1. doi: 10.1167/tvst.6.5.1. eCollection 2017 Sep.
PURPOSE: Biofilm formation is a problem for solid and sponge-type scleral buckles. This can lead to complications that require removal of the buckle, and result in vision loss due to related ocular morbidity, primarily infection, or recurrent retinal detachment. We investigate the ability of a covalent organo-selenium coating to inhibit biofilm formation on a scleral buckle.
METHODS: Sponge and solid Labtican brand scleral buckles were coated with organo-selenium coupled to a silyation reagent. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation was monitored by a standard colony-forming unit assay and the confocal laser scanning microscopy, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Stability studies were done, by soaking in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at room temperature for 2 months. Toxicity against human corneal epithelial cell was examined by growing the cells in the presence of organo-selenium-coated scleral buckles.
RESULTS: The organo-selenium coating inhibited biofilm formation by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The buckle coatings also were shown to be fully active after soaking in PBS for 2 months. The organo-selenium coatings had no effect on the viability of human corneal epithelial cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Organo-selenium can be used to covalently coat a scleral buckle, which is stable and inhibits biofilm formation for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The organo-selenium buckle coating was stable and nontoxic to cell culture.
TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: This technology provides a means to inhibit bacterial attachment to devices attached to the eye, without damage to ocular cells.
A Novel Organo-Selenium Bandage that Inhibits Biofilm Development in a Wound by Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Wound Pathogens
Antibiotics (Basel). 2014 Aug 25;3(3):435-49. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics3030435.
Biofilm formation in wounds is a serious problem which inhibits proper wound healing. One possible contributor to biofilm formation in a wound is the bacteria growing within the overlying bandage. To test this mechanism, we used bandages that contained a coating of organo-selenium that was covalently attached to the bandage. We tested the ability of this coating to kill bacteria on the bandage and in the underlying tissue. The bandage material was tested with both lab strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis. It was found that the organo-selenium coated bandage showed inhibition, of biofilm formation on the bandage in vitro (7-8 logs), with all the different bacteria tested, at selenium concentrations in the coating of less than 1.0%. These coatings were found to remain stable for over one month in aqueous solution, 15 min in boiling water, and over 6 years at room temperature. The bandages were also tested on a mouse wound model where the bacteria were injected between the bandage and the wound. Not only did the selenium bandage inhibit biofilm formation in the bandage, but it also inhibited biofilm formation in the wound tissue. Since selenium does not leave the bandage, this would appear to support the idea that a major player in wound biofilm formation is bacteria which grows in the overlying bandage.
The ability of quaternary ammonium groups attached to a urethane bandage to inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation in a mouse wound model
Int Wound J. 2017 Feb;14(1):79-84. doi: 10.1111/iwj.12554. Epub 2015 Dec 28.
For proper wound healing, control of bacteria or bacterial infections is of major importance. While caring for a wound, dressing material plays a key role as bacteria can live in the bandage and keep re-infecting the wound. They do this by forming biofilms in the bandage, which slough off planktonic bacteria and overwhelm the host defense. It is thus necessary to develop a wound dressing that will inhibit bacterial growth. This study examines the effectiveness of a polyurethane foam wound dressing bound with polydiallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (pDADMAC) to inhibit the growth of bacteria in a wound on the back of a mouse. This technology does not allow pDADMAC to leach away from the dressing into the wound, thereby preventing cytotoxic effects. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were chosen for the study to infect the wounds. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are important pathogens in wound infections, while A. baumannii was selected because of its ability to acquire or upregulate antibiotic drug resistance determinants. In addition, two different isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were tested. All the bacteria were measured in the wound dressing and in the wound tissue under the dressing. Using colony-forming unit (CFU) assays, over six logs of inhibition (100%) were found for all the bacterial strains using pDADMAC-treated wound dressing when compared with control-untreated dressing. The CFU assay results obtained with the tissues were significant as there were 4-5 logs of reduction (100%) of the test organism in the tissue of the pDADMAC-covered wound versus that of the control dressing-covered wound. As the pDADMAC cannot leave the dressing (like other antimicrobials), this would imply that the dressing acts as a reservoir for free bacteria from a biofilm and plays a significant role in the development of a wound infection.
A study on the ability of quaternary ammonium groups attached to a polyurethane foam wound dressing to inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation
Wound Repair Regen. 2015 Jan-Feb;23(1):74-81. doi: 10.1111/wrr.12244. Epub 2015 Feb 13.
Bacterial infection of acute and chronic wounds impedes wound healing significantly. Part of this impediment is the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow in wound dressings. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a polyurethane (PU) foam wound dressings coated with poly diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (pDADMAC-PU) to inhibit the growth and biofilm development by three main wound pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, within the wound dressing. pDADMAC-PU inhibited the growth of all three pathogens. Time-kill curves were conducted both with and without serum to determine the killing kinetic of pDADMAC-PU. pDADMAC-PU killed S. aureus, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa. The effect of pDADMAC-PU on biofilm development was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative analysis, colony-forming unit assay, revealed that pDADMAC-PU dressing produced more than eight log reduction in biofilm formation by each pathogen. Visualization of the biofilms by either confocal laser scanning microscopy or scanning electron microscopy confirmed these findings. In addition, it was found that the pDADMAC-PU-treated foam totally inhibited migration of bacteria through the foam for all three bacterial strains. These results suggest that pDADMAC-PU is an effective wound dressing that inhibits the growth of wound pathogens both within the wound and in the wound dressing.
Inhibition of otopathogenic biofilms by organoselenium-coated tympanostomy tubes
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Oct;139(10):1009-16. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2013.4690.
IMPORTANCE: Tube occlusion and post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea (PTTO) are 2 major sequelae of tympanostomy tube placement. Plugging negates the function of the tympanostomy tubes and, along with chronic PTTO, can be financially burdensome owing to repeated surgical procedures and additional treatments.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of an organoselenium (OSe) coating on Donaldson tympanostomy tubes in inhibiting biofilm formation on the tympanostomy tubes.
DESIGN: In vitro microbiologic study; all experiments were performed in a Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center basic sciences laboratory.
INTERVENTIONS: Inhibition of biofilm formation was investigated by incubating OSe-coated vs uncoated (control) tympanostomy tubes in a nutrient broth containing either Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) expressing GFP, or Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) for 48 hours at 37 °C. All biofilms were quantified via colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. The Sa and NTHi biofilms were visualized using confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) and analyzed using the COMSTAT program.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The CFU assays, CLSM, and COMSTAT analysis revealed that compared with uncoated control tympanostomy tubes, OSe-coated tympanostomy tubes are able to inhibit Sa, NTHi, and Mc biofilm formation.
RESULTS: The Sa and NTHi developed thick mature biofilms containing considerable biomass on uncoated tympanostomy tubes as determined by CLSM and COMSTAT analysis, while the OSe coating on the tympanostomy tubes drastically inhibited biofilm formation by Sa and NTHi. Quantitative CFU analysis revealed that this reduction in biofilm formation was significant, 6 logs for Sa (P < .001) and 4 logs for NTHi (P = .02). OSe coating also inhibited biofilm formation by Mc with a 4.5-log reduction (P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The OSe coating is a potential long-lasting agent to prevent biofilm development on tympanostomy tubes by otopathogens.
An organoselenium compound inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilms on hemodialysis catheters in vivo
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Feb;56(2):972-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.05680-11. Epub 2011 Nov 28.
Colonization of central venous catheters (CVCs) by pathogenic bacteria leads to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). These colonizing bacteria form highly antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in CRBSIs. Impregnating CVC surfaces with antimicrobial agents has various degrees of effectiveness in reducing the incidence of CRBSIs. We recently showed that organoselenium covalently attached to disks as an antibiofilm agent inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms. In this study, we investigated the ability of an organoselenium coating on hemodialysis catheters (HDCs) to inhibit S. aureus biofilms in vitro and in vivo. S. aureus failed to develop biofilms on HDCs coated with selenocyanatodiacetic acid (SCAA) in either static or flowthrough continuous-culture systems. The SCAA coating also inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms on HDCs in vivo for 3 days. The SCAA coating was stable and nontoxic to cell culture or animals. This new method for coating the internal and external surfaces of HDCs with SCAA has the potential to prevent catheter-related infections due to S. aureus.
What a study of pterygia teaches us about the cornea? Molecular mechanisms of formation
Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Sep;36(5):290-5. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0b013e3181eea8fe.
Experiments were carried out in the early 1990s to investigate the cell types involved in a pterygium and to determine a possible mechanism of formation. Our first experiments used monoclonal antibodies to keratins and an associated protein (vimentin), to look at the cells that compose a pterygium. These experiments demonstrated that a pterygium is the result of an abnormal limbal basal epithelial stem cell that moves onto Bowman's layer and brings about the dissolution of this layer. More importantly, these data showed that the clear corneal epithelial cells in front of the pterygium also contained these abnormal limbal cells, which we named the pterygium cell. This demonstrated that when a pterygium is removed, a wide area of what appears to be normal epithelium must be removed to inhibit reoccurrence of the growth. Later experiments using expressed sequence tag analysis of an un-normalized unamplified complementary DNA library from surgically removed pterygia were compared with normal cornea and confirmed the role of the epithelial cells in this growth. The gene expression studies also showed that genes involved in cellular migration are stimulated, and this led to studies on polyamine analogs as inhibitors of pterygial migration. Immunohistochemical studies with antibodies to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) showed that it is the pterygium cell that produces the MMPs that dissolve Bowman's layer resulting in the growth stimulation of stromal fibroblasts. This led to experiments on the use of MMP inhibitors to inhibit the growth of pterygia.
Doxycycline's effect on ocular angiogenesis: an in vivo analysis
Ophthalmology. 2010 Sep;117(9):1782-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.01.037. Epub 2010 Jun 3.
PURPOSE: To determine the in vivo effect of doxycycline on choroidal angiogenesis and pterygium growth by using a choroidal neovascular (CNV) murine model, a directed in vivo angiogenesis assay (DIVAA) and a pterygium murine model.
DESIGN: Experimental study.
PARTICIPANTS: Three murine models were investigated with 4 mice minimum per group and 22 maximum per group.
METHODS: Mice received water with or without doxycycline. For the CNV, the neovascular lesion volume was determined in choroid-retinal pigment epithelial flat mounts using confocal microscopy 7 days after laser induction. For DIVAA, silicone capsules containing 10,000 human pterygium epithelial cells were implanted in the flanks of mice subcutaneously. After 11 days, neovascularization (NV) was quantified using spectrofluorometry after murine tail-vein injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. A pterygium epithelial cell model was developed by injecting 10,000 human pterygium epithelial cells in the nasal subconjunctival space in athymic nude mice. Doxycycline was started on day 6 at 50 mg/kg per day; corneal lesions that resulted from the injections were compared at days 6 and 15.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Student t-test was used to evaluate the data for the CNV and DIVAA models and histologic preparations were used to evaluate pterygia lesions.
RESULTS: There was significantly less NV and lesion volume with doxycycline taken in drinking water versus plain water. With doxycycline treatment, the laser-induced CNV showed a maximal 66% decrease in choroidal blood vessel volume (P< or =0.008) and the DIVAA showed a 30% reduction of blood vessel growth and migration (P<0.004). Histologic preparations demonstrated that pterygium cell lesions regressed when mice were administered doxycycline for 9 days.
CONCLUSIONS: Doxycycline significantly inhibited angiogenesis in 3 murine models. The most dramatic effect was found in the CNV model followed by the pterygia epithelial cell DIVAA model. The anterior segment pterygium model also showed regression histologically. This suggests that doxycycline may be successful as an adjunctive treatment for CNV and pterygia in humans; clinical trials would be necessary to determine if there is a benefit.