Dr. Albrecht holds faculty appointments in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Animal Health & Biomedical Sciences, and Pediatrics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is the Director of the BBPIC/AMFSC Microscopy Lab. His research activities lie in the area of cell surface receptors and antigens; receptor-cytoskeleton interactions; structure/function relationships in platelets and macrophages; correlative cell cytology, cytochemistry, and ultrastructure; video-enhanced DIC light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high voltage electron microscopy; immuno-gold and ligand-gold preparations and labeling for light and electron microscopy; and biocompatibility of polymer surfaces.
Therapeutic Potentials of Selected Antihypertensive Agents and Their Fixed-Dose Combinations Against Trastuzumab-Mediated Cardiotoxicity
Front Pharmacol. 2021 Mar 4;11:610331. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.610331. eCollection 2020.
Trastuzumab (TZM) is useful in the clinical management of HER2-positive metastatic breast, gastric, and colorectal carcinoma but has been limited by its off-target cardiotoxicity. This study investigates the therapeutic potentials of 0.25 mg/kg/day amlodipine, 0.035 mg/kg/day lisinopril, 5 mg/kg/day valsartan, and their fixed-dose combinations in TZM-intoxicated Wistar rats that were randomly allotted into 10 groups of 6 rats for each group. Group I rats were treated with 10 ml/kg/day sterile water orally and 1 ml/kg/day sterile water intraperitoneally; Groups II, III, and IV rats were orally gavaged with 5 mg/kg/day valsartan and 1 ml/kg/day sterile water intraperitoneally, 0.25 mg/kg/day amlodipine and 1 ml/kg/day sterile water via the intraperitoneal route, 0.035 mg/kg/day lisinopril and 1 ml/kg/day sterile water administered intraperitoneally, respectively. Group V rats were orally treated with 10 ml/kg/day of sterile water prior to intraperitoneal administration of 2.25 mg/kg/day of TZM. Groups VI-VIII rats were equally pretreated with 5 mg/kg/day valsartan, 0.25 mg/kg/day amlodipine, and 0.035 mg/kg/day lisinopril before intraperitoneal 2.25 mg/kg/day TZM treatment, respectively; Groups IX and X rats were orally pretreated with the fixed-dose combinations of 0.25 mg/kg/day amlodipine +0.035 mg/kg/day lisinopril and 5 mg/kg/day valsartan +0.035 mg/kg/day lisinopril, respectively, before TZM treatment. Cardiac injury and tissue oxidative stress markers, complete lipids profile, histopathological, and immunohistochemical assays were the evaluating endpoints. Results showed that repeated TZM treatments caused profound increases in the serum TG and VLDL-c levels, serum cTnI and LDH levels, and cardiac tissue caspase-3 and -9 levels but decreased BCL-2 expression. TZM also profoundly attenuated CAT, SOD, GST and GPx activities, and increased MDA levels in the treated tissues. In addition, TZM cardiotoxicity was characterized by marked vascular and cardiomyocyte congestion and coronary artery microthrombi formation. However, the altered biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical changes were reversed with amlodipine, lisinopril, valsartan, and fixed-dose combinations, although fixed-dose valsartan/lisinopril combination was further associated with hyperlipidemia and increased AI and CRI values and coronary artery cartilaginous metaplasia. Thus, the promising therapeutic potentials of amlodipine, lisinopril, valsartan and their fixed-dose combinations in the management of TZM cardiotoxicity, majorly mediated via antiapoptotic and oxidative stress inhibition mechanisms were unveiled through this study.
<em>Polyalthia longifolia</em> Extract Triggers ER Stress in Prostate Cancer Cells Concomitant with Induction of Apoptosis: Insights from <em>In Vitro</em> and <em>In Vivo</em> Studies
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Nov 13;2019:6726312. doi: 10.1155/2019/6726312. eCollection 2019.
Plant-based therapies are being explored to prevent or treat several cancer types. The antioxidant properties of Polyalthia longifolia plant are well established. In our previous work, we demonstrated the presence of cytotoxic compounds in the methanol extract of Polyalthia longifolia (MEP) with potent activity against human leukemia cells. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MEP against prostate cancer (PCa) and established the molecular basis of its effect in in vitro and in vivo models. We observed that MEP treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the growth and viability of PCa cells, associated with arrest in the G1/S phase of the cell cycle. Apoptosis was confirmed as the primary mode of MEP-induced cell death through activation of the intrinsic apoptotic machinery. Proteomic and biochemical studies identified BiP as an important target of MEP with the activation of the ER stress pathway, as a potential mechanism driving MEP-induced apoptosis. The extract exhibited strong efficacy in the PCa xenograft mouse model with significant inhibition of tumor growth and reduced tumor burden. Taken together, our findings indicate that MEP-induced apoptosis in PCa cells concomitant with the activation of the ER stress pathways results in the inhibition of tumor growth, in vitro and in vivo. Our studies provide initial evidence of the efficacy of MEP against PCa and advocate for in-depth studies in other preclinical models for its possible use in clinical settings.
Multiple morphologies of gold-magnetite heterostructure nanoparticles are effectively functionalized with protein for cell targeting
Microsc Microanal. 2013 Aug;19(4):821-34. doi: 10.1017/S1431927613001700. Epub 2013 Jun 7.
Nanoparticles composed of a magnetic iron oxide core surrounded by a metal shell have utility in a broad range of biomedical applications. However, the presence of surface energy differences between the two components makes wetting of oxide with metal unfavorable, precluding a "core-shell" structure of an oxide core completely surrounded by a thin metal shell. Three-dimensional island growth followed by island coalescence into thick shells is favored over the two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth of a thin, continuous metal coating of a true core-shell. Aqueous synthesis of gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles with analysis by infrared, energy-dispersive X-ray, and electron energy loss spectroscopies; high-resolution transmission electron microscopy; selected area electron diffraction; and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy showed two distinct morphologies that are inconsistent with an idealized core-shell. The majority were isolated ~16-22-nm-diameter nanoparticles consisting of ~7-nm-diameter magnetite and a thick deposition of gold, most often discontinuous, with some potentially "sandwiched" morphologies. A minority were aggregates of agglomerated magnetite decorated with gold but displaying significant bare magnetite. Both populations were successfully conjugated to fibrinogen and targeted to surface-activated platelets, demonstrating that iron oxide-gold nanoparticles produced by aqueous synthesis do not require an ideal core-shell structure for biological activity in cell labeling and targeting applications.
Single-cell elemental analysis of bacteria: quantitative analysis of polyphosphates in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012 May 24;2:63. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00063. eCollection 2012.
More than 1.8 million people die annually from infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. The ability of M. tuberculosis to obtain and distribute micronutrients, including biometals, is known to play a role in its intracellular survival and virulence within a host. Techniques to detect elemental distributions within M. tuberculosis cells have previously been limited to bulk detection methods or low-resolution analyses. Here, we present a method for determining the elemental distribution within M. tuberculosis on a single-cell level, at high (individual nanometer) resolution, using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in concert with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results revealed the presence of large polyphosphate granules in all strains of Mycobacteria tested. These persisted even through starvation conditions, and might play a role connected to elemental homeostasis in M. tuberculosis. Associated with the polyphosphate granules were micronutrients such as calcium and magnesium. In addition, we expanded the technique beyond Mycobacteria to show that STEM and EDS could be used as a simple screen to detect the presence or absence of concentrated elements on a single-cell level within all six other bacterial types tested, with minimal processing to the bacteria. Overall, we believe that this technique represents a first step in developing a better understanding of the role that components of the intracellular milieu, including polyphosphates and biometals, play in the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis, with potential future applications for in vivo analysis.
Deletion of glucose-inhibited division (gidA) gene alters the morphological and replication characteristics of Salmonella enterica Serovar typhimurium
Arch Microbiol. 2012 Jun;194(6):405-12. doi: 10.1007/s00203-011-0769-7. Epub 2011 Nov 23.
Salmonella is an important food-borne pathogen that continues to plague the United States food industry. Characterization of bacterial factors involved in food-borne illnesses could help develop new ways to control salmonellosis. We have previously shown that deletion of glucose-inhibited division gene (gidA) significantly altered the virulence potential of Salmonella in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. Most importantly, the gidA mutant cells displayed a filamentous morphology compared to the wild-type Salmonella cells. In our current study, we investigated the role of GidA in Salmonella cell division using fluorescence and electron microscopy, transcriptional, and proteomic assays. Scanning electron microscopy data indicated a filamentous morphology with few constrictions in the gidA mutant cells. The filamentation of the gidA mutant cells is most likely due to the defect in chromosome segregation, with little to no sign of septa formation observed using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, deletion of gidA altered the expression of many genes and proteins responsible for cell division and chromosome segregation as indicated by global transcriptional profiling and semi-quantitative western blot analysis. Taken together, our data indicate GidA as a potential regulator of Salmonella cell division genes.
Histamine release associated with intravenous delivery of a fluorocarbon-based sevoflurane emulsion in canines
J Pharm Sci. 2011 Jul;100(7):2685-92. doi: 10.1002/jps.22488. Epub 2011 Jan 18.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel fluorocarbon-based sevoflurane emulsion in dogs previously shown to produce short-term rodent anesthesia. On the basis of an unexpected allergic-type clinical reaction, we also tested the hypothesis that this type of formulation causes histamine release and complement activation. Physiological parameters, plasma histamine levels (radioimmunoassay), and complement activation (enzyme immunoassay) were quantified in response to emulsion components, including F13M5 (the emulsion's fluorocarbon-based polymer) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) 5000 (the polymer's hydrophilic block). Although the emulsion produced general anesthesia in dogs, they also experienced hypotension and clinical signs suggestive of an allergic-like response (i.e., vasodilation, urticaria, and pruritus upon recovery). Emulsions lacking sevoflurane failed to induce anesthesia but did elicit the allergic response. Plasma histamine levels were significantly increased following injection of micellar solutions of F13M5. Direct complement activation by the emulsion or its components was weak or absent. An allergic response leading to histamine release, likely initiated by the F13M5 component via an immunoglobulin pathway, is associated with an intravenous fluorocarbon-based emulsion of sevoflurane. Subsequently, its usefulness in medicine in its present formulation is limited.
Colloidal palladium particles of different shapes for electron microscopy labeling
Microsc Microanal. 2010 Feb;16(1):33-42. doi: 10.1017/S1431927609991188. Epub 2009 Dec 24.
The immunogold technique is a valuable method for labeling cellular macromolecules. However, multiple labeling using colloidal gold (cAu) nanoparticles of different sizes presents certain drawbacks; namely, as particle size increases, there is a decreased labeling efficiency and diminished spatial resolution with respect to the locations of labeled epitopes. Both concerns also limit the utility of heavy metal particles for comparative analysis of labeling densities. To minimize the variables due to differential labeling efficiencies, the best solution would be to conduct multiple labeling with particles of similar size. Consequently, some parameter other than size is necessary to distinguish each label type. In this study, we report the synthesis of colloidal palladium (cPd) nanoparticles of similar size but having two distinct shapes, umbonate and faceted, which are readily distinguishable from spherical colloidal gold particles. Their utility and fidelity as labels using a human platelet whole-mount model is also demonstrated.
Toxicity assessments of multisized gold and silver nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos
Small. 2009 Aug 17;5(16):1897-910. doi: 10.1002/smll.200801716.
The potential toxicity of nanoparticles is addressed by utilizing a putative attractive model in developmental biology and genetics: the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Transparent zebrafish embryos, possessing a high degree of homology to the human genome, offer an economically feasible, medium-throughput screening platform for noninvasive real-time assessments of toxicity. Using colloidal silver (cAg) and gold nanoparticles (cAu) in a panoply of sizes (3, 10, 50, and 100 nm) and a semiquantitative scoring system, it is found that cAg produces almost 100% mortality at 120 h post-fertilization, while cAu produces less than 3% mortality at the same time point. Furthermore, while cAu induces minimal sublethal toxic effects, cAg treatments generate a variety of embryonic morphological malformations. Both cAg and cAu are taken up by the embryos and control experiments, suggesting that cAg toxicity is caused by the nanoparticles themselves or Ag(+) that is formed during in vivo nanoparticle destabilization. Although cAg toxicity is slightly size dependent at certain concentrations and time points, the most striking result is that parallel sizes of cAg and cAu induce significantly different toxic profiles, with the former being toxic and the latter being inert in all exposed sizes. Therefore, it is proposed that nanoparticle chemistry is as, if not more, important than specific nanosizes at inducing toxicity in vivo. Ultimately such assessments using the zebrafish embryo model should lead to the identification of nanomaterial characteristics that afford minimal or no toxicity and guide more rational designs of materials on the nanoscale.
Dynamin-2-dependent targeting of mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin to mitochondrial cyclophilin D in bovine lymphoblastoid cells
Infect Immun. 2008 Nov;76(11):5357-65. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00221-08. Epub 2008 Sep 2.
Exotoxins which belong to the family containing the RTX toxins (repeats in toxin) contribute to a variety of important human and animal diseases. One example of such a toxin is the potent leukotoxin (LKT) produced by the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica. LKT binds to CD18, resulting in the death of bovine leukocytes. In this study, we showed that internalized LKT binds to the outer mitochondrial membrane, which results in the release of cytochrome c and collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (psi(m)). Incubation of bovine lymphoblastoid cells (BL-3 cells) with the mitochondrial membrane-stabilizing agent cyclosporine (CSA) reduced LKT-mediated cytotoxicity, cytochrome c release, and collapse of the psi(m). Coimmunoprecipitation and intracellular binding studies suggested that LKT binds to the mitochondrial matrix protein cyclophilin D. We also demonstrated that LKT mobilizes the vesicle scission protein dynamin-2 from mitochondria to the cell membrane. Incubation with CSA depleted mitochondrial dynamin-2 in BL-3 cells, making it unavailable for vesicle scission and LKT internalization. The results of this study show that LKT trafficking and LKT-mediated cell death involve dynamin-2 and cyclophilin D, in a process that can be prevented by the mitochondrial membrane-protecting function of CSA.
Structural organization of the cytoskeleton in SV40 human corneal epithelial cells cultured on nano- and microscale grooves
Scanning. 2008 Sep-Oct;30(5):405-13. doi: 10.1002/sca.20123.
The basement membrane of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) has a three-dimensional nanoscale architecture, which includes pores, bumps and fibers that may influence cell-substrate adhesion and spreading in the overlying cells. We previously demonstrated that nano- and microscale groove and ridge patterns influence the morphological response and the adhesive response of HCECs to a nominal wall shear stress. Cell-substrate adhesion is mediated by adhesion receptors that bind to extracellular matrix components and anchor the cytoskeleton (CSK) of cells to extracellular elements. Here we investigate the CSK organization in SV40-transformed HCECs grown on nano- and microscale groove and ridge patterns. X-ray lithography was used to fabricate uniform groove and ridge patterns with features ranging in size from 200 nm to 2 microm grooves. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate CSK structure and the distribution of -beta1 integrin adhesion receptors. CSK elements aligned with the patterns; however, the spatial organization of these elements was influenced by feature size. Larger CSK bundles lay on top of the ridges and ran parallel to the patterns, whereas smaller CSK bundles, whose width was proportional to the groove size, spanned the grooves. -Beta1 integrins co-localized with the CSK and had a higher density at the poles of aligned spindle-shaped cells. Differences in organization seen on the different topographical feature sizes may be indicative of differences in extracellular matrix organization. This may explain, in part, previous observations regarding the dependence of cell adhesive responses on the size of topographic features in the substrate.
Immunolabeling for correlative light and electron microscopy on ultrathin cryosections
Microsc Microanal. 2008 Apr;14(2):159-65. doi: 10.1017/S1431927608080239. Epub 2008 Mar 3.
Correlative labeling permits colocalization of molecular species for observation of the same sample in light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM). Myosin bands in ultrathin cryosections were labeled using both fluorophore conjugated to secondary antibody (IgG) and colloidal gold (cAu) particles conjugated to primary IgG as reporters for LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. This technique allows rapid evaluation of labeling via LM, prior to more time-consuming observations with TEM and also yields two complementary data sets in one labeling procedure. Quenching of the fluorescent signal was inversely related to the distance between fluorophore and cAu particles. The signal from fluorophore conjugated to secondary antibody was inversely proportional to the size of cAu conjugated to primary antibody. Where fluorophore and cAu were bound to the same antibody, the fluorescence signal was nearly completely quenched regardless of fluorophore excitation or emission wavelength and regardless of particle size, 3 nm and larger. Colloidal metal particles conjugated to primary antibody provide high spatial resolution for EM applications. Fluorophore conjugated to secondary antibody provides spatial resolution well within that of conventional fluorescence microscopy. Use of fluorescent secondary antibody moved the fluorophore a sufficient distance from the cAu particles on the primary antibody to limit quenching of fluorescence.
Multiple correlative immunolabeling for light and electron microscopy using fluorophores and colloidal metal particles
J Histochem Cytochem. 2007 Oct;55(10):983-90. doi: 10.1369/jhc.6A7124.2007. Epub 2007 Jul 24.
Multiple correlative immunolabeling permits colocalization of molecular species for sequential observation of the same sample in light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM). This technique allows rapid evaluation of labeling via LM, prior to subsequent time-consuming preparation and observation with transmission electric microscopy (TEM). The procedure also yields two different complementary data sets. In LM, different fluorophores are distinguished by their respective excitation and emission wavelengths. In EM, colloidal metal nanoparticles of different elemental composition can be differentiated and mapped by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy with electron spectroscopic imaging. For the highest level of spatial resolution in TEM, colloidal metal particles were conjugated directly to primary antibodies. For LM, fluorophores were conjugated to secondary antibodies, which did not affect the spatial resolution attainable by fluorescence microscopy but placed the fluorophore at a sufficient distance from the metal particle to limit quenching of the fluorescence signal. It also effectively kept the fluorophore at a sufficient distance from the colloidal metal particles, which resulted in limiting quenching of the fluorescent signal. Two well-defined model systems consisting of myosin and alpha-actinin bands of skeletal muscle tissue and also actin and alpha-actinin of human platelets in ultrathin Epon sections were labeled using both fluorophores (Cy2 and Cy3) as markers for LM and equally sized colloidal gold (cAu) and colloidal palladium (cPd) particles as reporters for TEM. Each sample was labeled by a mixture of conjugates or labels and observed by LM, then further processed for TEM.
Fluorescence quenching by colloidal heavy metals nanoparticles: implications for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy studies
Scanning. 2007 Jul-Aug;29(4):152-61. doi: 10.1002/sca.20055.
Labels for correlative immunolabeling in light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) employing colloidal metal nanoparticles (gold or palladium) and fluorescent dyes (Alexa Fluor, AF) were investigated. The fluorescence signals from direct conjugates (cAu-IgG-AF) and from an indirect label system (cAu-IgG-anti IgG-AF) were studied using scanning spectrofluorometry and fluorescence light microscopy. Direct conjugation of protein--AF, IgG-AF or FGN-AF to 18 and 5 nm colloidal gold (cAu18 and cAu5) or 12 nm colloidal palladium particles (cPd12) resulted in nearly completely quenched fluorescence signals (>99 %) at excitation wavelengths of 488, 546 and 594 nm. In contrast, indirect conjugation, when colloidal metal particles and AF were conjugated to primary or secondary antibody, respectively (cAu-IgG-antiIgG-AF), sufficient fluorescence signal was detected. Commercially available conjugates, consisting of IgG-AF-cAu5 and IgG-AF-cAu10, were also tested and proved to be a mixture of IgG-AF (unbound to cAu) and cAu-IgG-AF.
Nano- and microscale holes modulate cell-substrate adhesion, cytoskeletal organization, and -beta1 integrin localization in SV40 human corneal epithelial cells
IEEE Trans Nanobioscience. 2006 Dec;5(4):273-80. doi: 10.1109/tnb.2006.886570.
Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) interface with a basement membrane in vivo that possesses complex nanoscale topographic features. We report that synthetic substrates patterned with nano- and microscale holes differentially modulate the proliferation, shape and adhesion of SV40 human corneal epithelial cells (SV40-HCECs) as a function of feature size: 1) Cell proliferation was inhibited on nanoscale features (features size less than 800 nm in pitch) compared to microscale features or planar substrates in identical culture conditions. 2) Cells on nanoscale holes had a stellate morphology compared to those on microscale features that were more evenly spread. 3) Cells adhered more to nanoscale features than to microscale features when exposed to shear stress in a laminar flow chamber. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cells cultured on the 400 nm pitch patterns had longer and more numerous filopodia and retraction fibers than cells cultured on the 1600 nm pitch patterns. Immunogold labeling of -beta1 integrins revealed that these receptors were localized at the cell periphery and in the aforementioned cytoskeletal elements. Our findings indicate that surface discontinuities and the activation of mechanochemical cell signaling mechanisms may contribute to the observed responses exhibited by SV40-HCECs cultured on nano- and microscale topography.
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin inhibits prostatic epithelial bud formation by acting directly on the urogenital sinus
J Urol. 2004 Jul;172(1):365-8. doi: 10.1097/01.ju.0000124989.02257.38.
PURPOSE: In utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure causes lobe specific inhibition of prostate development in C57BL/6 mice due primarily to region specific inhibition of prostatic epithelial bud formation by the urogenital sinus (UGS). This inhibition requires that the receptor for TCDD, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), must be present. We tested the hypothesis that TCDD inhibits prostatic epithelial bud formation by acting directly on the UGS.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: UGSs were removed from WT and AhR null mutant (AhRKO) male C57BL/6 mice on gestation day 14 and incubated in vitro with vehicle, 10-8 M testosterone or 10-8 M testosterone plus 10-9 M TCDD for 5 days. Budding was evaluated by a newly developed technique, namely scanning electron microscopy of UGS epithelium after removal of UGS mesenchyme.
RESULTS: Few buds were present in UGSs of either genotype in the absence of testosterone, while many were observed when testosterone was present. TCDD prevented prostatic epithelial buds from forming in UGSs from WT mice but it had no effect on UGSs from AhRKO mice.
CONCLUSIONS: TCDD can act directly on the UGS to cause AhR dependent inhibition of prostatic epithelial bud formation. Because this inhibition occurred at a TCDD concentration similar to the estimated concentration at which TCDD inhibits bud formation in vivo, it appears that TCDD inhibits prostatic budding primarily via direct effects on the UGS rather than indirectly through effects on other organs.
Scanning electron microscopic examination of third metacarpal/third metatarsal bone failure surfaces in thoroughbred racehorses with condylar fracture
Vet Surg. 2004 Jan-Feb;33(1):2-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950x.2004.04007.x.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the fracture failure surfaces from Thoroughbred horses that had sustained a catastrophic condylar fracture.
SAMPLE POPULATION: Bone specimens from the failure surface were obtained from 12 Thoroughbred racehorses with catastrophic injury and 2 non-racing horses with accidental long bone fracture.
METHODS: Bone specimens from the failure surface of each fracture were incubated with gold microspheres to label microcracks before examination at x50 to x60,000 using scanning electron microscopy. Microcracking at the failure surface was assessed using a visual analog scale.
RESULTS: Branching arrays or clusters of microcracks were seen over a range of magnifications in adapted subchondral bone in the distal end of the MC3/MT3 bone from racing Thoroughbreds with a catastrophic displaced condylar fracture. In the palmar/plantar region, microcracking was associated with the formation of an array of macroscopic cracks in the condylar groove. A different pattern of microcracking was seen in specimens of bone from distal metaphyseal and diaphyseal MC3/MT3 failure surfaces from Thoroughbred racehorses with catastrophic fracture and non-racing horses with an accidental diaphyseal long bone fracture. Few microcracks were seen and typically did not form branching arrays.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that propagation of condylar fracture in Thoroughbred racehorses is initiated by the formation of nanoscale microcracks in adapted subchondral bone that form during exercise-induced bone adaptation.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Accumulation and coalescence of branching microcracks into arrays or clusters appears to eventually lead to the development of macroscopic subchondral cracks in the condylar groove and initiation of a condylar fracture.
Leukocyte migration is regulated by L-selectin endoproteolytic release
Immunity. 2003 Nov;19(5):713-24. doi: 10.1016/s1074-7613(03)00295-4.
L-selectin mediates lymphocyte migration to peripheral lymph nodes and leukocyte rolling on vascular endothelium during inflammation. One unique feature that distinguishes L-selectin from other adhesion molecules is that it is rapidly cleaved from the cell surface after cellular activation. The biological significance of L-selectin endoproteolytic release was determined by generating gene-targeted mice expressing a modified receptor that was not cleaved from the cell surface. Blocking L-selectin cleavage on antigen-stimulated lymphocytes allowed their continued migration to peripheral lymph nodes and inhibited their short-term redirection to the spleen. Blocking homeostatic L-selectin cleavage also resulted in a constitutive 2-fold increase in overall L-selectin expression by leukocytes. As a result, neutrophils entered the inflamed peritoneum in greater numbers or for a longer duration. Thus, endoproteolytic cleavage regulates both homeostatic and activation-induced changes in cell surface L-selectin density, which directs the migration patterns of activated lymphocytes and neutrophils in vivo.
Lack of expression of EGF and TGF-alpha in the fetal mouse alters formation of prostatic epithelial buds and influences the response to TCDD
Toxicol Sci. 2003 Dec;76(2):427-36. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfg238. Epub 2003 Sep 26.
In utero, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure causes abnormal ventral, dorsolateral, and anterior prostate development in C57BL/6J mice. Androgens, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, and growth factor expression all have roles in initiating and regulating development and growth of the prostate. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), both of which bind the EGF receptor (EGFR), are expressed in human and rodent developing prostate. This study examines the influence of null expression of EGF and/or TGF-alpha on prostatic bud development and on the ability of TCDD to inhibit prostatic budding. Growth factor knockout (-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were exposed either to vehicle or to TCDD (0, 0.2, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, or 150 microg/kg) on gestation day (GD) 12. The number of anterior, dorsal, and lateral prostatic buds (ADLB) and ventral buds (VB) were counted on GD 17.5. Control WT and EGF (-/-) fetuses had similar numbers of ADLB and VB. In control TGF-alpha (-/-) fetuses, the number of ADLBs was higher relative to the C57BL/6J. Control EGF + TGF-alpha (-/-) had poor bud outgrowth, especially in the ADL region. TCDD induced a dose-related decrease in bud formation in all strains with the formation of VBs being more sensitive than ADLBs. The severity of the response depended on growth factor expression, with the most severe effects on VBs in the EGF (-/-) and on ADLBs in the EGF + TGF-alpha (-/-) fetuses. TGF-alpha (-/-) and C57BL/6J fetuses responded to TCDD similarly. In conclusion, EGF and TGF-alpha expression are important for the formation of ADLBs and VBs, and expression of EGF and TGF-alpha affects the ability of TCDD to inhibit prostatic bud formation in a region-specific manner.
Region-specific inhibition of prostatic epithelial bud formation in the urogenital sinus of C57BL/6 mice exposed in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Toxicol Sci. 2003 Nov;76(1):171-81. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfg218. Epub 2003 Aug 27.
In utero 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure causes abnormal ventral, dorsolateral, and anterior prostate development in wild-type but not aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) null mutant C57BL/6 mice. Experiments have now been conducted to test the hypothesis that TCDD causes an AhR-dependent inhibition of the earliest visible stage of prostate development, the formation of prostatic buds by urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelium. A novel method for viewing budding was developed that uses scanning electron microscopy of isolated UGS epithelium instead of three-dimensional reconstruction of serial histological sections of intact UGS. In the initial experiment, the time course for prostatic epithelial bud formation in vehicle- and TCDD-exposed wild-type C57BL/6J mice was determined. A single maternal dose of TCDD (5 mug/kg) on gestation day 13 delayed the appearance of dorsal, lateral, and anterior buds by about one day, reduced dorsolateral bud number, and prevented ventral buds from forming. No such effects were seen in TCDD-exposed AhR null mutant fetuses, while AhR null mutation, alone, had no detectable effect on budding. Treatment of wild-type dams with sufficient 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to masculinize female fetuses failed to protect against the inhibition of budding caused by TCDD. These results demonstrate that in utero TCDD exposure causes an AhR-dependent inhibition of prostatic epithelial bud formation commensurate with its inhibitory effects on ventral and dorsolateral prostate development, and that the inhibition of budding is not due to insufficient DHT. Inhibited bud formation appears to be the primary cause of abnormal prostate development in TCDD-exposed mice.
Structural aspects of the lymphocyte traffic in rat submandibular lymph node
Microsc Microanal. 2002 Apr;8(2):116-33. doi: 10.1017/s1431927601020049.
Modulation of lymphocyte flow in the lymphatic compartment of the lymph node may serve, in part, to promote lymphocyte sensitization during an antigenic challenge. This study was undertaken to show where this might occur by examining the structural relationships of the intranodal lymphatic pathways, blood vessels, and connective tissue support with respect to lymphocyte and lymph flow. Differently stained plastic resins were injected into the blood vessels and lymphatics of the submandibular lymph node and visualized with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The specimens were corroded to study the three-dimensional cast structures by scanning electron microscopy. Alkali digestion was also used to prepare the reticular fiber network in the lymph node for scanning electron microscopic examination. At the hilus of the node, two to three arteries gave off arterioles running in medullary cords towards the cortex. The medullary cords, the periphery of the deep cortex, and the perifollicular zones had dense capillary networks. In contrast, the center of the follicle and the center of the deep cortex were less highly vascularized. High-endothelial venules were restricted to the perifollicular zone and the periphery of the deep cortex. At the cortico-medullary boundary, they abruptly transformed into medullary venules with a normal endothelium. The marginal sinus of the lymph node was crossed by thick reticular fibers that arose from the inner sheets of the capsule. The lymph pathway went through the marginal sinus, into the trabecular sinus, to the cortical perifollicular sinus, the dense lymphatic sinus around the deep cortex, and finally into the medullary sinus. At present, the exact functional significance of the complex lymph node lymphatic architecture is not clear. However, the highly organized structural organization may play a significant role in regulating and directing lymphocyte flow to facilitate antigen presentation.
Cell association of liposomes with high fluid anionic phospholipid content is mediated specifically by LDL and its receptor, LDLr
J Pharm Sci. 2002 May;91(5):1233-44. doi: 10.1002/jps.10075.
We have sought to confirm indications in our recent studies suggesting that association of liposomes composed of 75-100 mol % egg phosphatidylglycerol (ePG), a fluid anionic phospholipid, with cells is mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) and the classical LDL receptor (LDLr). In the present study, binding of liposomes composed of 75-100 mol % ePG to CV1-P cells, either in serum-supplemented medium or in defined medium supplemented with LDL, is blocked by the presence of either of two monoclonal antibodies. The first is immunoglobulin (Ig)G C7, an antibody specific for LDLr. The second is IgG 5E11, an antibody specific for domain 3441-3569 of apolipoprotein B100. CHOldlA7, a cell line known to lack the LDLr and previously shown by us to associate minimally with 75-100 mol % ePG liposomes, was transfected with the human LDLr. The transfected cells bound 75-100 mol % ePG liposomes at high levels, and this binding was blocked by IgG C7. Previously, we have shown that serum, but not LDL or high density lipoprotein, induces association of 25-50 mol % ePG liposomes with both CV1-P and CHO wild type cells, but not CHOldlA7. In the present study, IgG C7 does not block this interaction, and transfected CHOldlA7 cells do not show this interaction. Hence, this form of liposome binding appears not to involve LDL or LDLr, but requires a receptor, currently unknown, and a serum component other than LDL or high density lipoprotein. The unknown receptor, in addition to LDLr, is missing from CHOldlA7.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 selectively translocates PKCalpha to nuclei in ROS 17/2.8 cells
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002 Feb 25;188(1-2):227-39. doi: 10.1016/s0303-7207(01)00670-0.
We have investigated protein kinase C (PKC) regulation by 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the rat osteosarcoma cell line ROS 17/2.8 since previous reports have implicated PKC in the 1,25-(OH)2D3-mediated regulation of osteocalcin gene expression (J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 12562; Endocrinology 136 (1995) 5685). Here we report that 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased PKCalpha, but not PKCbetaI, epsilon or zeta, levels in the nuclear fraction in a time-dependent manner. Unlike PMA, 1,25-(OH)2D3 did not alter the association of any of the expressed PKC isoenzymes with the plasma membrane. Treatment with 20 nM 1,25-(OH)2D3 for 15 min, 30 min, 1 h and 24 h increased PKCalpha levels in the nuclear fraction by 2.3- to 2.6-fold. Nuclear PKCalpha expression was also increased with doses of 1,25-(OH)2D3 as low as a 0.05 nM. 1,25-(OH)2D3-mediated stabilization of osteocalcin mRNA (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 332 (1996) 142) was inhibited with bisindolylmaleimide treatment, suggesting that PKCalpha may be involved in the 1,25-(OH)2D3-mediated regulation of osteocalcin gene expression.