Dr. Trepanier is a Professor of Medicine at the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine. She is Board Certified by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine and the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology. Her research interests include idiosyncratic drug toxicity, pharmacogenetics, and comparative drug biotransformation among species.
Potential mechanism for hyperhomocysteinemia in Greyhound dogs
J Vet Intern Med. 2023 May-Jun;37(3):960-967. doi: 10.1111/jvim.16700. Epub 2023 Apr 24.
BACKGROUND: Greyhounds have been reported to have hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC), but the underlying mechanisms and clinical implications are unclear.
HYPOTHESIS: Our primary aim was to assess serum concentrations of homocysteine (HCy) and related analytes in Greyhounds and to identify a likely metabolic pathway for HHC. A secondary aim was to determine whether HHC is associated with evidence of oxidative stress.
ANIMALS: Healthy pet Greyhounds (n = 31) and non-sighthound control dogs (n = 15).
METHODS: Analysis of serum HCy, cobalamin, folate, and methionine, and plasma cysteine, glutathione, and total 8-isoprostane concentrations.
RESULTS: Homocysteine concentrations were higher in Greyhounds (median, 25.0 μmol/L) compared to controls (13.9 μmol/L; P < .0001). Cobalamin concentrations were lower in Greyhounds (median, 416 ng/L) compared to controls (644 ng/L; P = .004) and were inversely correlated with HCy (r = -0.40, P = .004). Serum concentrations of folate, which is regenerated when HCy is converted to methionine, also were inversely correlated with HCy (r = -0.47, P = .002). Serum methionine concentrations were more than 4-fold lower in Greyhounds (median, 3.2 μmol/L) compared to controls (median, 15.0 μmol/L), but this difference was not significant (P = .3). Plasma cysteine, glutathione, and 8-isoprostane concentrations did not differ significantly between groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Our findings suggest a primary defect in conversion of HCy to methionine in Greyhounds, with related impaired folate generation. Ineffective cycling by methionine synthase could lead to secondary cobalamin depletion. Notably, low serum folate and cobalamin concentrations can be observed in Greyhounds without signs of intestinal disease.
Genotoxicity from metronidazole detected in vitro, but not in vivo, in healthy dogs in a randomized clinical trial
Am J Vet Res. 2022 Nov 11;84(1):ajvr.22.07.0112. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.22.07.0112.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metronidazole (MTZ), at recommended therapeutic dosages in dogs, induces peripheral blood cell (PMBC) genotoxicity, using the γ-H2AX assay as a sensitive measure of DNA breaks. The secondary aim was to assess dose-dependent genotoxicity in vitro in dog and cat PBMCs exposed to increasing MTZ concentrations.
ANIMALS: 12 healthy employee- and student-owned dogs and blood samples from 2 other healthy untreated dogs and 2 healthy untreated cats.
PROCEDURES: Screened dogs were randomized to receive lower-dose MTZ (7.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) or higher-dose MTZ (20 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 7 days. Blood was drawn at baseline, after the 1 week of treatment, and after a 1-week washout, for DNA damage assessment and serum MTZ concentration measurements. For in vitro studies, PBMCs from untreated healthy dogs and cats were exposed to 0 to 500 μg/mL MTZ.
RESULTS: No dogs showed a significant increase in DNA damage at these MTZ dosages for 1 week. The highest serum MTZ concentration observed 1 hour after dosing was 36 μg/mL. In vitro, MTZ led to a significant increase in DNA damage at 100 μg/mL in both canine and feline PBMCs.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although MTZ was not significantly genotoxic in vivo in the healthy dogs in this study, MTZ was significantly genotoxic to canine PBMCs in vitro at 3-fold higher concentrations than those documented in vivo. The safety of MTZ in clinically ill dogs, which may have impaired MTZ clearance or DNA repair, should be assessed next.
Environmental exposures and lymphoma risk: a nested case-control study using the Golden Retriever Lifetime Study cohort
Canine Med Genet. 2022 Jul 15;9(1):10. doi: 10.1186/s40575-022-00122-9.
Lymphoma is the second most common cancer affecting Golden Retrievers and is hypothesized to arise through a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this nested case-control study was to investigate the association between potential environmental pollutant sources and lymphoma risk among Golden Retrievers participating in the Golden Retriever Lifetime Study. Forty-nine Golden Retrievers with non-cutaneous lymphoma and 98 Golden Retrievers without a history of cancer matched by age, sex and neuter status were selected from the Golden Retriever Lifetime Study cohort. Geographic proximity between each dog's primary residence and nine potential sources of environmental pollution was determined. In addition, the average annual ozone and airborne fine particulate matter levels for each dog's county of residence and owner-reported secondhand smoke exposure were evaluated. Environmental pollution sources of interest included chemical plants, municipal dumps, manufacturing plants, incineration plants, railroad embankment tracks, landfills, coal plants, high-voltage transmission lines, and nuclear power plants. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each exposure of interest. Subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate whether associations differed among 1) dogs with multicentric lymphoma, 2) dogs with B-cell lymphoma, and 3) dogs with T-cell lymphoma. No variables reached statistical significance when evaluating all cases together. However, cumulative exposure burden (household proximity to 3 or more pollution sources) approached significance within the multicentric lymphoma subgroup (OR = 2.60, 95%CI 0.99-6.86, p-value = 0.053). Patterns emerged among B- and T-cell subgroups, but none reached statistical significance. Ongoing research is warranted to discern if different environmental mechanisms may be driving B- and T-cell lymphoma immunophenotypes, consistent with previously reported regional differences in subtype prevalence.
Incidence of hepatopathies in dogs administered zonisamide orally: A retrospective study of 384 cases
J Vet Intern Med. 2022 Mar;36(2):576-579. doi: 10.1111/jvim.16398. Epub 2022 Mar 2.
BACKGROUND: Acute hepatopathy secondary to administration of zonisamide has been reported in 2 dogs, but overall incidence of hepatopathy is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the incidence of hepatopathy in dogs administered zonisamide PO.
ANIMALS: Three hundred eighty-four dogs administered zonisamide PO.
METHODS: Multicenter retrospective study. Medical records were searched for dogs prescribed zonisamide PO and which had follow-up for at least 3 months (acute exposure) and >3 months (chronic exposure). Reported clinical signs, physical examination findings, and serum biochemical panels were reviewed for possible hepatotoxicosis. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and albumin concentration were documented for all available cases.
RESULTS: Acute clinical hepatopathy was found in 2 of 384 treated dogs (0.52%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-1.9) after 13-16 days of zonisamide treatment. One additional dog had elevated serum ALT activity with no clinical signs. Of these 3 dogs, 2 recovered after administration of zonisamide was stopped, and 1 was euthanized because of liver failure. Of the 117 cases chronically administered zonisamide, 10 had an increase in ALP, 6 had an increase in ALT, and 1 had hypoalbuminemia. No clinical signs of liver disease were noted in dogs chronically treated with zonisamide (median, 20 months; range, 5-94 months).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Acute, potentially life-threatening hepatopathy associated with oral administration of zonisamide to dogs is estimated to occur in less than 1% of dogs and was observed in the first 3 weeks of treatment. Subclinical abnormalities in ALT and ALP activity were noted in <10% of dogs during chronic administration of zonisamide, with no clinical signs of liver disease noted.
Risk of bladder cancer and lymphoma in dogs is associated with pollution indices by county of residence
Vet Comp Oncol. 2022 Mar;20(1):246-255. doi: 10.1111/vco.12771. Epub 2021 Sep 16.
Human urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are considered environmental cancers in people, but less is known about environment risk for UCC and lymphoma in dogs. The objective of this study was to determine whether dogs with these cancers, compared to unaffected control dogs, live in counties with higher tap water contaminants or higher levels of air pollution as measured by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and by National Air Toxics Assessment chemical exposure risk estimates. Dogs with available home addresses from two previously published case-control populations were included: 66 dogs with UCC and 70 unaffected controls; and 56 boxer dogs with lymphoma and 84 unaffected boxer controls. Tap water total trihalomethanes, which are water disinfection by-products, were more than threefold higher in UCC case counties of residence compared to controls (p < .0001), and a higher proportion of dogs with UCC lived in counties exceeding EPA ozone limits (41.8%) compared to controls (13.6% p = .0008). More boxers with lymphoma lived in counties exceeding EPA ozone limits (52.1%) compared to controls (29.0%; p = .018), with higher exposure risk estimates for airborne 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde (p = .004-.005). These data support the hypothesis that tap water contaminants and airborne environmental pollutants contribute to the risk of both urothelial carcinoma and lymphoma in dogs. If these findings reflect causal relationships, then it is possible that tap water filtration units and more effective air pollution controls could decrease the overall incidence of these cancers in dogs.
Environmental chemical exposures in the urine of dogs and people sharing the same households
J Clin Transl Sci. 2020 Oct 2;5(1):e54. doi: 10.1017/cts.2020.548.
INTRODUCTION: Urothelial carcinoma (UCC) develops in both humans and dogs and tracks to regions of high industrial activity. We hypothesize that dogs with UCC may act as sentinels for human urothelial carcinogen exposures. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether healthy people and dogs in the same households share urinary exposures to potentially mutagenic chemical carcinogens.
METHODS: We measured urinary concentrations of acrolein (as its metabolite 3-HPMA), arsenic species, 4-aminobiphenyl, and 4-chlorophenol (a metabolite of the phenoxyherbicide 2,4-D) in healthy dogs and their owners. We assessed possible chemical sources through questionnaires and screened for urothelial DNA damage using the micronucleus assay.
RESULTS: Biomarkers of urinary exposure to acrolein, arsenic, and 4-chlorophenol were found in the urine of 42 pet dogs and 42 owners, with 4-aminobiphenyl detected sporadically. Creatinine-adjusted urinary chemical concentrations were significantly higher, by 2.8- to 6.2-fold, in dogs compared to humans. Correlations were found for 3-HPMA (r = 0.32, P = 0.04) and monomethylarsonic acid (r = 0.37, P = 0.02) between people and their dogs. Voided urothelial cell yields were inadequate to quantify DNA damage, and questionnaires did not reveal significant associations with urinary chemical concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS: Healthy humans and pet dogs have shared urinary exposures to known mutagenic chemicals, with significantly higher levels in dogs. Higher urinary exposures to acrolein and arsenic in dogs correlate to higher exposures in their owners. Follow-up studies will assess the mutagenic potential of these levels in vitro and measure these biomarkers in owners of dogs with UCC.
Plasma and urinary F<sub>2</sub>-isoprostane markers of oxidative stress are increased in cats with early (stage 1) chronic kidney disease
J Feline Med Surg. 2021 Aug;23(8):692-699. doi: 10.1177/1098612X20969358. Epub 2020 Nov 4.
OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress contributes to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in humans and rodent models; F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) are established biomarkers of oxidative stress. Our primary aim was to evaluate plasma F2-IsoPs in cats with International Renal Interest Society stage 1 and 2 CKD, compared with healthy cats, and to determine whether plasma and urinary F2-IsoPs are equivalent biomarkers. The secondary aim was to assess whether consumption of a renal diet enriched in omega-3 fatty acids led to improvements in plasma and urinary F2-IsoPs.
METHODS: Plasma and urinary F2-IsoPs were measured in 24 cats with stage 1 or 2 CKD, and 12 unaffected controls aged ⩾6 years. Twelve CKD cats were re-evaluated after feeding a commercial renal diet for at least 4 weeks.
RESULTS: Median plasma F2-IsoPs were significantly higher in stage 1 CKD (96.2 pg/ml), early stage 2 CKD (83.2 pg/ml) and late stage 2 CKD (80.8 pg/ml) compared with healthy cats (22.8 pg/ml; P = 0.03-0.002). Median urinary F2-IsoPs were significantly higher in cats with stage 1 CKD (231.2 pg/mg) compared with healthy cats (152.5 pg/mg) or cats with late stage 2 CKD (124.8 pg/mg; P = 0.01). Plasma F2-IsoPs remained increased, while urinary F2-IsoPs fell with transition from stage 1 to stage 2 CKD. Feeding a commercial renal diet led to significant decreases in plasma F2-IsoPs in the small group of cats with stage 1 CKD (25-75% decrease) compared with cats with stage 2 CKD (20% decrease to 53% increase; P = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Oxidative stress is prominent in cats with stage 1 CKD. Plasma and urinary F2-IsoPs are not interchangeable biomarkers in cats with stage 2 CKD. Placebo-controlled studies are indicated to evaluate dietary or pharmacologic doses of omega-3 fatty acids on redox stress and progression of renal dysfunction in cats with stage 1 CKD.
Biochemical, functional, and histopathologic characterization of lomustine-induced liver injury in dogs
Am J Vet Res. 2020 Oct;81(10):810-820. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.81.10.810.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the biochemical, functional, and histopathologic changes associated with lomustine-induced liver injury in dogs.
ANIMALS: I0 healthy purpose-bred sexually intact female hounds.
PROCEDURES: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive lomustine (approx 75 mg/m2, PO, q 21 d for 5 doses) alone (n = 5) or with prednisone (approx 1.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 12 weeks; 5). For each dog, a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, liver function testing, urinalysis, and ultrasonographic examination of the liver with acquisition of liver biopsy specimens were performed before and at predetermined times during and after lomustine administration. Results were compared between dogs that did and did not receive prednisone.
RESULTS: 7 of the I0 dogs developed clinical signs of liver failure. For all dogs, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bile acid concentrations, and liver histologic score increased and hepatic reduced glutathione content decreased over time. Peak serum ALT (r = 0.79) and ALP (r = 0.90) activities and bile acid concentration (r = 0.68) were positively correlated with the final histologic score. Prednisone did not appear to have a protective effect on histologic score.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In dogs, liver enzyme activities, particularly ALT and ALP activities, should be closely monitored during lomustine treatment and acute increases in those activities may warrant discontinuation of lomustine to mitigate liver injury. Nonspecific ultrasonographic findings and abnormal increases in liver function tests were not detected until the onset of clinical liver failure. Glutathione depletion may have a role in lomustine-induced hepatopathy and warrants further investigation.
Genetic and environmental risk for lymphoma in boxer dogs
J Vet Intern Med. 2020 Sep;34(5):2068-2077. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15849. Epub 2020 Jul 15.
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in humans is associated with environmental chemical exposures, and risk is enhanced by genetic variants in glutathione S-transferases (GST) enzymes.
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that boxer dogs, a breed at risk for lymphoma, would have a higher prevalence of GST variants with predicted low activity, and greater accumulated DNA damage, compared to other breeds. We also hypothesized that lymphoma in boxers would be associated with specific environmental exposures and a higher prevalence of canine GST variants.
ANIMALS: Fifty-four healthy boxers and 56 age-matched nonboxer controls; 63 boxers with lymphoma and 89 unaffected boxers ≥10 years old.
METHODS: We resequenced variant loci in canine GSTT1, GSTT5, GSTM1, and GSTP1 and compared endogenous DNA damage in peripheral leukocytes of boxers and nonboxers using the comet assay. We also compared GST variants and questionnaire-based environmental exposures in boxers with and without lymphoma.
RESULTS: Endogenous DNA damage did not differ between boxers and nonboxers. Boxers with lymphoma were more likely to live within 10 miles of a nuclear power plant and within 2 miles of a chemical supplier or crematorium. Lymphoma risk was not modulated by known canine GST variants.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Proximity to nuclear power plants, chemical suppliers, and crematoria were significant risk factors for lymphoma in this population of boxers. These results support the hypothesis that aggregate exposures to environmental chemicals and industrial waste may contribute to lymphoma risk in dogs.
Glutathione S-transferase theta genotypes and environmental exposures in the risk of canine transitional cell carcinoma
J Vet Intern Med. 2019 May;33(3):1414-1422. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15504. Epub 2019 Apr 22.
INTRODUCTION: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in humans is associated with environmental exposures and variants in glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes. Scottish Terriers have a high breed risk for TCC, but the relationship between genetic and environmental risk in dogs is not fully understood.
HYPOTHESES: Scottish Terriers have a higher frequency of GST-theta variants compared to lower risk breeds. Dogs with TCC of any breed have a higher frequency of GST-theta variants along with higher environmental exposures, compared to controls.
ANIMALS: One hundred and five Scottish Terriers and 68 controls from lower risk breeds; 69 dogs of various breeds with TCC, and 72 breed- and sex-matched unaffected geriatric dogs.
METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, dogs were genotyped for 3 canine GST-theta variants: GSTT1 I2+28 G>A, a GSTT1 3'UTR haplotype, and GSTT5 Asp129_Gln130del. Owners of dogs with TCC and unaffected geriatric controls completed a household environmental questionnaire.
RESULTS: The GSTT1 3'UTR haplotype and GSTT5 Asp129_Gln130del variants were significantly underrepresented in Scottish Terriers (minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.000 for both), compared to dogs from lower risk breeds (MAF = 0.108 and 0.100; P ≤ .0002). Dogs with TCC did not differ from unaffected geriatric controls across the 3 investigated loci. Transitional cell carcinoma was associated with household insecticide use (odds ratio [OR] = 4.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44-12.33, P = .02), and was negatively associated with proximity to a farm (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25-0.99, P = .04).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Low-activity GST-theta loci are unlikely contributors to TCC risk in dogs. Increased risk is associated with household insecticide use, and possibly with less rural households.
Prospective crossover clinical trial comparing transdermal with oral phenobarbital administration in epileptic cats
J Feline Med Surg. 2019 Dec;21(12):1181-1187. doi: 10.1177/1098612X18823577. Epub 2019 Jan 28.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare serum phenobarbital concentrations, adverse events and client satisfaction during 14 weeks of transdermal vs oral phenobarbital administration to epileptic cats.
METHODS: This was a prospective, fixed-order, crossover pilot study. Nine client-owned cats with presumptive or diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy were enrolled. Oral phenobarbital (PO-PB) was administered for weeks 1-14 (median starting dosage of 3.8 mg/kg [2.0-5.4 mg/kg/day] q12h); transdermal phenobarbital (TD-PB) was administered for weeks 14-28 (median starting dosage 18.8 mg/kg/day [17.6-24.0 mg/kg/day] q12h). Serum phenobarbital concentrations (S-PB) were measured at weeks 2, 14, 16 and 28. Client satisfaction questionnaires and biochemistry were evaluated at 14 and 28 weeks.
RESULTS: Median S-PB concentrations during oral administration were 21 µg/ml (observed range 11-40 µg/ml) at week 2 and 22 µg/ml (8-35 µg/ml) at week 14, and at the higher TD dosage were 18 µg/ml (0-42 µg/ml) at week 16 and 17 µg/ml (7-50 µg/ml) at week 28. Phenobarbital concentrations were significantly correlated with PO dosage at week 2 (r = 0.75, P = 0.03) but not at weeks 16 and 28. Significantly more dose adjustments were needed during the TD phase (P = 0.03), but 6/9 owners (67%) still preferred TD to PO administration. Adverse effects were mild and comparable in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Therapeutic S-PB concentrations were achievable in some cats using TD-PB at 18 mg/kg/day q12h. Poor correlation between TD dosage and S-PB concentrations was observed and more dosage adjustments were required during TD administration. These findings necessitate close therapeutic drug monitoring if TD-PB is prescribed.
RNA expression profiling in sulfamethoxazole-treated patients with a range of in vitro lymphocyte cytotoxicity phenotypes
Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2018 Mar 2;6(2):e00388. doi: 10.1002/prp2.388. eCollection 2018 Apr.
The lymphocyte toxicity assay (LTA) is a proposed surrogate marker of sulfonamide antibiotic hypersensitivity. In the LTA, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) undergo apoptosis more readily in hypersensitive versus tolerant patients when exposed to drug-hydroxylamine metabolites in vitro. The purpose of this study was to identify key gene transcripts associated with increased cytotoxicity from sulfamethoxazole-hydroxylamine in human PBMCs in the LTA. The LTA was performed on PBMCs of 10 patients hypersensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (HS) and 10 drug-tolerant controls (TOL), using two cytotoxicity assays: YO-PRO (n = 20) and MTT (n = 12). mRNA expression profiles of PBMCs, enriched for CD8+ T cells, were compared between HS and TOL patients. Transcript expression was interrogated for correlation with % cytotoxicity from YO-PRO and MTT assays. Correlated transcripts of interest were validated by qPCR. LTA results were not significantly different between HS and TOL patients, and no transcripts were found to be differentially expressed between the two groups. 96 transcripts were correlated with cytotoxicity by YO-PRO (r = ±.63-.75, FDR 0.188). Transcripts were selected for validation based on mechanistic plausibility and three were significantly over-expressed by qPCR in high cytotoxicity patients: multi-specific organic anion transporter C (ABCC5), mitoferrin-1 (SLC25A37), and Porimin (TMEM123). These data identify novel transcripts that could contribute to sulfonamide-hydroxylamine induced cytotoxicity. These include SLC25A37, encoding a mitochondrial iron transporter, ABCC5, encoding an arylamine drug transporter, and TMEM123, encoding a transmembrane protein that mediates cell death.
Evaluation of potential serum biomarkers of hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity in dogs with liver disease
J Vet Intern Med. 2018 May;32(3):1009-1018. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15064. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
BACKGROUND: Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the ratio of aspartate transaminase to alanine transaminase (AST:ALT) have been correlated with fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity in humans with various hepatopathies.
HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine whether increases in serum IL-6, CCL2, CRP, or AST:ALT were associated with moderate to severe fibrosis or necroinflammatory activity in dogs with various hepatopathies.
ANIMALS: Forty-four client-owned dogs with clinical evidence of liver disease and 10 healthy purpose-bred dogs, all undergoing liver biopsies by laparoscopy or laparotomy.
METHODS: Measurement of serum IL-6, CCL2, CRP, AST, and ALT before scheduled liver biopsy and evaluation of liver histopathology using the METAVIR scoring system used in human medicine, blinded to clinical presentation.
RESULTS: Median serum IL-6 was approximately twice as high in dogs with high fibrosis scores (15.5 pg/mL; range, 1.4 to 235 pg/mL) compared to dogs with low fibrosis scores (7.6 pg/mL; range, 1.4 to 148.1 pg/mL), with marginal significance (P = .05). Median serum CCL2 was significantly higher in dogs with active necroinflammation (444 pg/mL; range, 144 to 896 pg/mL) compared to dogs without detectable necroinflammation (326 pg/mL; range, 59 to 1692 pg/mL; P = .008), but with considerable overlap between groups. Neither serum CRP nor AST:ALT ratios were significantly different based on fibrosis or necroinflammatory scores.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Because of substantial variability among dogs, single measurements of IL-6 and CCL2 have limited diagnostic utility for identifying fibrosis or necroinflammation, respectively, in dogs with various chronic liver diseases. The value of these biomarkers should be explored further in monitoring response to treatment in individual dogs with chronic hepatopathies.
Research Directions in Genetic Predispositions to Stevens-Johnson Syndrome / Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Mar;103(3):390-394. doi: 10.1002/cpt.890. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) is one of the most devastating of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and was, until recently, essentially unpredictable. With the discovery of several risk alleles for drug-induced SJS/TEN and the demonstration of effectiveness of screening in reducing incidence, the stage is set for implementation of preventive strategies in populations at risk. Yet much remains to be learned about this potentially fatal complication of commonly used drugs.
Hepatic expression profiles in retroviral infection: relevance to drug hypersensitivity risk
Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2017 Apr 26;5(3):e00312. doi: 10.1002/prp2.312. eCollection 2017 Jun.
HIV-infected patients show a markedly increased risk of delayed hypersensitivity (HS) reactions to potentiated sulfonamide antibiotics (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or TMP/SMX). Some studies have suggested altered SMX biotransformation in HIV infection, but hepatic biotransformation pathways have not been evaluated directly. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is another chronic inflammatory disease with a higher incidence of sulfonamide HS, but it is unclear whether retroviral infection and SLE share risk factors for drug HS. We hypothesized that retroviral infection would lead to dysregulation of hepatic pathways of SMX biotransformation, as well as pathway alterations in common with SLE that could contribute to drug HS risk. We characterized hepatic expression profiles and enzymatic activities in an SIV-infected macaque model of retroviral infection, and found no evidence for dysregulation of sulfonamide drug biotransformation pathways. Specifically, NAT1,NAT2,CYP2C8,CYP2C9,CYB5R3,MARC1/2, and glutathione-related genes (GCLC,GCLM,GSS,GSTM1, and GSTP1) were not differentially expressed in drug naïve SIVmac239-infected male macaques compared to age-matched controls, and activities for SMX N-acetylation and SMX hydroxylamine reduction were not different. However, multiple genes that are reportedly over-expressed in SLE patients were also up-regulated in retroviral infection, to include enhanced immunoproteasomal processing and presentation of antigens as well as up-regulation of gene clusters that may be permissive to autoimmunity. These findings support the hypothesis that pathways downstream from drug biotransformation may be primarily important in drug HS risk in HIV infection.
Immunogenicity of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in a macaque model of HIV infection
Toxicology. 2016 Aug 10;368-369:10-18. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2016.08.010. Epub 2016 Aug 23.
BACKGROUND: Sulfonamide hypersensitivity has a high incidence in HIV infection and correlates with low CD4+ counts, but the mechanisms are not understood. The aims of this study were to determine whether trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) led to SMX adduct formation, immunogenicity, or signs of drug hypersensitivity in SIV-infected rhesus macaques, and whether differences in antioxidants, pro-inflammatory mediators, or SMX disposition were predictive of drug immunogenicity.
METHODS: Nine macaques chronically infected with SIVmac239 and 7 non-infected controls were studied. Baseline blood ascorbate, glutathione, IFN-γ, LPS, sCD14, and cytochrome b5 reductase measurements were obtained, macaques were dosed with TMP/SMX (120mg/kg/day p.o. for 14days), and SMX metabolites, lymph node drug adducts, drug-responsive T cells, and anti-SMX antibodies were measured.
RESULTS: Four of 9 of SIV-positive (44%), and 3 of 7 SIV negative (43%) macaques had drug-responsive T cells or antibodies to SMX. Two macaques developed facial or truncal rash; these animals had the highest levels of lymph node drug adducts. Antioxidants, pro-inflammatory mediators, and SMX metabolites were not predictive of drug immunogenicity; however, the Mamu DRB1*0401/0406/0411 genotype was significantly over-represented in immune responders.
CONCLUSIONS: Unlike other animal models, macaques develop an immune response, and possible rash, in response to therapeutic dosages of TMP/SMX. Studying more animals with CD4+ counts <200cells/μl, along with moderately restricted ascorbate intake to match deficiencies seen in humans, may better model the risk of SMX hypersensitivity in HIV-infection. In addition, the role of Mamu-DRB1 genotype in modeling drug hypersensitivity in retroviral infection deserves further study.
Genome-Wide Association Study in Immunocompetent Patients with Delayed Hypersensitivity to Sulfonamide Antimicrobials
PLoS One. 2016 Jun 7;11(6):e0156000. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156000. eCollection 2016.
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity (HS) reactions to sulfonamide antibiotics occur uncommonly, but with potentially severe clinical manifestations. A familial predisposition to sulfonamide HS is suspected, but robust predictive genetic risk factors have yet to be identified. Strongly linked genetic polymorphisms have been used clinically as screening tests for other HS reactions prior to administration of high-risk drugs.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate for genetic risk of sulfonamide HS in the immunocompetent population using genome-wide association.
METHODS: Ninety-one patients with symptoms after trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) attributable to "probable" drug HS based on medical record review and the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale, and 184 age- and sex-matched patients who tolerated a therapeutic course of TMP-SMX, were included in a genome-wide association study using both common and rare variant techniques. Additionally, two subgroups of HS patients with a more refined clinical phenotype (fever and rash; or fever, rash and eosinophilia) were evaluated separately.
RESULTS: For the full dataset, no single nucleotide polymorphisms were suggestive of or reached genome-wide significance in the common variant analysis, nor was any genetic locus significant in the rare variant analysis. A single, possible gene locus association (COL12A1) was identified in the rare variant analysis for patients with both fever and rash, but the sample size was very small in this subgroup (n = 16), and this may be a false positive finding. No other significant associations were found for the subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS: No convincing genetic risk factors for sulfonamide HS were identified in this population. These negative findings may be due to challenges in accurately confirming the phenotype in exanthematous drug eruptions, or to unidentified gene-environment interactions influencing sulfonamide HS.
Transient cold agglutinins associated with Mycoplasma cynos pneumonia in a dog
Vet Clin Pathol. 2015 Dec;44(4):498-502. doi: 10.1111/vcp.12286. Epub 2015 Sep 10.
This report details a case of reversible cold agglutinins in a dog with Mycoplasma cynos pneumonia. An 11-month-old female spayed Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented for lethargy and cough. Thoracic radiographs revealed an alveolar pattern present bilaterally in the cranioventral lung lobes. Septic neutrophilic inflammation with suspected Mycoplasma sp. organisms was noted on cytologic examination of a trans-tracheal wash, and the dog was treated empirically with IV ampicillin/sulbactam and enrofloxacin pending culture results. Red blood cell agglutination was noted unexpectedly on several blood film reviews during hospitalization; however, the dog never developed clinical or laboratory evidence of hemolysis. Cold agglutinins were demonstrated based on the results of a saline dilution and cold agglutinin test that showed agglutination at 4°C but not at room temperature (21°C) or 37°C. Based on a positive culture for M cynos, the dog was treated for 8 weeks with oral enrofloxacin. After clinical and radiographic resolution of the pneumonia, repeated saline dilution and cold agglutinin tests of peripheral blood were negative at all temperatures. Reversible, asymptomatic cold agglutinins are common in human patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, but this is the first reported case in a dog.
Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases workshop on drug allergy
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Aug;136(2):262-71.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.05.027.
Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several National Institutes of Health institutes and the US Food and Drug Administration. The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein.
Polymorphisms in the carcinogen detoxification genes CYB5A and CYB5R3 and breast cancer risk in African American women
Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Nov;25(11):1513-21. doi: 10.1007/s10552-014-0454-7. Epub 2014 Sep 16.
PURPOSE: Cytochrome b 5 (encoded by CYB5A) and NADH cytochrome b 5 reductase (encoded by CYB5R3) detoxify aromatic and heterocyclic amine mammary carcinogens found in cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that CYB5A and CYB5R3 polymorphisms would be associated with breast cancer risk in women.
METHODS: We characterized the prevalence of 18 CYB5A and CYB5R3 variants in genomic DNA from African American (AfrAm) and Caucasian (Cauc) women from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study population (1,946 cases and 1,747 controls) and determined their associations with breast cancer risk, with effect modification by smoking.
RESULTS: A CYB5R3 variant, I1M+6T (rs8190370), was significantly more common in breast cancer cases (MAF 0.0238) compared with controls (0.0169, p = 0.039); this was attributable to a higher MAF in AfrAm cases (0.0611) compared with AfrAm controls (0.0441, p = 0.046; adjusted OR 1.41, CI 0.98-2.04; p = 0.062). When smoking was considered, I1M+6T was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk in AfrAm smokers (adjusted OR 2.10, 1.08-4.07; p = 0.028) compared with never smokers (OR = 1.21; 0.77-1.88; p for interaction = 0.176). I1M+6T and three additional CYB5R3 variants, -251T, I8-1676C, and *392C, as well as two CYB5A variants, 13G and I2-992T, were significantly more common in AfrAms compared with Caucs.
CONCLUSIONS: CYB5R3 I1M+6C>T should be considered in future molecular epidemiologic studies of breast cancer risk in AfrAms. Further, variants in CYB5A and CYB5R3 should be considered in the evaluation of other tumors in AfrAms that are associated with aromatic and heterocyclic amine exposures, to include prostate, bladder, and colon cancers.
Therapeutic serum phenobarbital concentrations obtained using chronic transdermal administration of phenobarbital in healthy cats
J Feline Med Surg. 2015 Apr;17(4):359-63. doi: 10.1177/1098612X14545141. Epub 2014 Aug 6.
Seizures are a common cause of neurologic disease, and phenobarbital (PB) is the most commonly used antiepileptic drug. Chronic oral dosing can be challenging for cat owners, leading to poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine if the transdermal administration of PB could achieve serum PB concentrations of between 15 and 45 μg/ml in healthy cats. Nineteen healthy cats were enrolled in three groups. Transdermal PB in pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) was applied to the pinnae for 14 days at a dosage of 3 mg/kg q12h in group 1 (n = 6 cats) and 9 mg/kg q12h in group 2 (n = 7 cats). Transdermal PB in Lipoderm Activemax was similarly applied at 9 mg/kg q12h for 14 days in group 3 (n = 6 cats). Steady-state serum PB concentrations were measured at trough, and at 2, 4 and 6 h after the morning dose on day 15. In group 1, median concentrations ranged from 6.0-7.5 μg/ml throughout the day (observed range 0-11 μg/ml). Group 2 median concentrations were 26.0 μg/ml (observed range 18.0-37.0 μg/ml). For group 3, median concentrations ranged from 15.0-17.0 μg/ml throughout the day (range 5-29 μg/ml). Side effects were mild. One cat was withdrawn from group 2 owing to ataxia and sedation. These results show therapeutic serum PB concentrations can be achieved in cats following chronic transdermal administration of PB in PLO at a dosage of 9 mg/kg q12h. More individual variation was noted using Lipoderm Activemax. Transdermal administration may be an alternative for cats that are difficult to medicate orally.
Cutaneous pythiosis in two dogs from Wisconsin, USA
Vet Dermatol. 2014 Feb;25(1):52-e21. doi: 10.1111/vde.12101. Epub 2013 Dec 28.
BACKGROUND: Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete that causes cutaneous lesions or infiltrative gastrointestinal disease in dogs, cats, humans, horses and other mammals, primarily in tropical and subtropical climates.
HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: We report the clinicopathological findings associated with cutaneous pythiosis in two dogs from a Northern temperate climate zone.
ANIMALS: A 3-year-old intact male Chesapeake Bay retriever was presented with an ulcerated soft-tissue swelling over the left eye. A 4-year-old spayed female German shepherd dog was presented with a soft-tissue swelling overlying the right hock. Both dogs lived in northern latitudes (between 43 and 45°N) and neither had travelled outside of Wisconsin or Michigan's upper peninsula, USA.
METHODS: Histopathological examination and culture of affected tissues on specialized media, serology for anti-P. insidiosum antibodies, P. insidiosum-specific PCR and ribosomal RNA gene sequencing were carried out.
RESULTS: Histopathological examination revealed pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic inflammation associated with wide, poorly septate hyphae.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Even clinicians who practice in temperate climates should consider pythiosis as a differential diagnosis for young to middle-aged adult dogs presented with ulcerated cutaneous nodules or infiltrative gastrointestinal disease.
Use of linezolid to treat MRSP bacteremia and discospondylitis in a dog
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2014 Jan-Feb;50(1):53-8. doi: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-5947. Epub 2013 Nov 11.
A 1.5 yr old male German shepherd dog was evaluated for recurrent intermittent episodes of fever and lethargy. Clinicopathologic abnormalities were suggestive of a discospondylitis at the seventh and eighth thoracic vertebrae. Blood and urine cultures yielded growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) that was resistant to all commonly used antibiotics. Extralabel antibiotic susceptibility testing demonstrated susceptibility of both blood and urine isolates to linezolid. The prescribed dose was extrapolated from pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and the isolate's plasma minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Linezolid was administered for 23 wk and resulted in successful resolution of bacteremia, bacteriuria, and discospondylitis. When justified, linezolid should be considered to treat methicillin-resistant infections.
Idiosyncratic drug toxicity affecting the liver, skin, and bone marrow in dogs and cats
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2013 Sep;43(5):1055-66. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2013.04.003. Epub 2013 Jun 5.
Idiosyncratic drug toxicity reactions are, by definition, uncommon, but can lead to serious or even fatal organ toxicity. The liver, skin, and peripheral blood cells/bone marrow are common targets. Most of these reactions are the result of reactive metabolites, which may cause local cell or organelle damage, or may be amplified by a systemic immune response. Individual risk may depend on differences in drug biotransformation, levels of oxidative stress, or antigen presentation.
Applying pharmacokinetics to veterinary clinical practice
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2013 Sep;43(5):1013-26. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2013.04.002. Epub 2013 Jun 13.
This article describes clinical examples in which pharmacokinetic parameters can be used to optimize veterinary patient care. Specific applications include extrapolating drug dosages, optimizing therapy with therapeutic drug monitoring, interpreting pharmacokinetic information provided by drug labels and pharmaceutical companies, and adjusting drug dosages in patients with hepatic or renal failure.
Challenges in exploring the cytochrome P450 system as a source of variation in canine drug pharmacokinetics
Drug Metab Rev. 2013 May;45(2):218-30. doi: 10.3109/03602532.2013.765445. Epub 2013 Feb 25.
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily constitutes a collection of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of a wide array of endo- and xenobiotic compounds. Much of the knowledge on substrate specificity and genetic identification of the various CYP isoforms is derived from research in rodents and humans and only limited information has been captured in the dog. Currently, there exist many gaps in our knowledge of canine CYP diversity as a result of the paucity of studies focusing on canine CYPs, canine CYP polymorphisms, and the therapeutic consequences of these genetic variants. Challenges engendered by this lack of information is further amplified by inter- and intraspecies differences in the specificity and affinity of substrates and inhibitors, prohibiting a simple extrapolation of probe substances used in human CYP research. This creates a need to develop and validate canine-specific CYP probes. Failure to understand this potential metabolic and pharmacogenomic diversity can also influence the interpretation of data generated in dogs to support human drug development. It is with these objectives in mind that we provide an overview of what is currently known about canine CYPs with the hope that it will encourage further exploration into this important area of research.
Evaluation of polymorphisms in the sulfonamide detoxification genes NAT2, CYB5A, and CYB5R3 in patients with sulfonamide hypersensitivity
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 Oct;22(10):733-40. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e328357a735.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether polymorphisms in the sulfonamide detoxification genes, CYB5A (encoding cytochrome b(5)), CYB5R3 (encoding cytochrome b(5) reductase), or NAT2 (encoding N-acetyltransferase 2) were over-represented in patients with delayed sulfonamide drug hypersensitivity, compared with control patients who tolerated a therapeutic course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole without adverse event.
METHODS: DNA from 99 nonimmunocompromised patients with sulfonamide hypersensitivity who were identified from the Personalized Medicine Research Project at the Marshfield Clinic, and from 99 age-matched, race-matched, and sex-matched drug-tolerant controls, were genotyped for four CYB5A and five CYB5R3 polymorphisms, and for all coding NAT2 SNPs.
RESULTS: CYB5A and CYB5R3 SNPs were found at low allele frequencies (<3-4%), which did not differ between hypersensitive and tolerant patients. NAT2 allele and haplotype frequencies, as well as inferred NAT2 phenotypes, also did not differ between groups (60 vs. 59% slow acetylators). Finally, no difference in NAT2 status was found in a subset of patients with more severe hypersensitivity signs (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) compared with tolerant patients.
CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of a substantial involvement of these nine CYB5A or CYB5R3 polymorphisms in sulfonamide hypersensitivity risk, although minor effects cannot be completely ruled out. Despite careful medical record review and full resequencing of the NAT2 coding region, we found no association of NAT2 coding alleles with sulfonamide hypersensitivity (predominantly cutaneous eruptions) in this adult Caucasian population.
Cholinergic crisis after neostigmine administration in a dog with acquired focal myasthenia gravis
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2011 Oct;21(5):547-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2011.00672.x. Epub 2011 Aug 24.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation and successful management of a dog experiencing a cholinergic crisis after neostigmine administration.
CASE SUMMARY: An 18-month-old neutered male Maltese-crossbred dog was diagnosed with acquired focal myasthenia gravis based on history and clinical signs of dysphagia and regurgitation, multiple series of thoracic radiographs showing focal to generalized megaesophagus, and an increased acetylcholine receptor antibody titer. After this diagnosis, the dog was initially treated with a single oral dose of pyridostigmine and later injectable neostigmine due to difficulty swallowing. Within 15 minutes of receiving a single dose (0.05 mg/kg) of subcutaneous neostigmine, the dog began showing muscarinic cholinergic signs of salivation and defecation, which progressed to nicotinic cholinergic signs of weakness and tachypnea. Within 30 minutes the dog experienced respiratory arrest and required ventilation. After 16 hours of ventilation, the dog recovered uneventfully and subsequently achieved a clinical and serologic remission from myasthenia gravis without further treatment.
NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: Cholinergic crisis and differentiation from a myasthenic crisis is described in the human literature. This case represents the first report in the veterinary literature of a cholinergic crisis in a dog treated with neostigmine.
Individual variability in the detoxification of carcinogenic arylhydroxylamines in human breast
Toxicol Sci. 2011 Jun;121(2):245-56. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr073. Epub 2011 Mar 29.
Cytochrome b(5) (b5) and NADH cytochrome b(5) reductase (b5R) detoxify reactive hydroxylamine (NHOH) metabolites of known arylamine and heterocyclic amine mammary carcinogens. The aim of this study was to determine whether NHOH reduction for the prototypic arylamine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) was present in human breast and to determine whether variability in activity was associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding, promoter, and 3'untranslated region (UTR) regions of the genes encoding b5 (CYB5A) and b5R (CYB5R3). 4-ABP-NHOH reduction was readily detected in pooled human breast microsomes, with a K(m) (280μM) similar to that found with recombinant b5 and b5R, and a V(max) of 1.12 ± 0.19 nmol/min/mg protein 4-ABP-NHOH reduction varied 75-fold across 70 individual breast samples and correlated significantly with both b5 (80-fold variability) and b5R (14-fold) immunoreactive protein. In addition, wide variability in b5 protein expression was significantly associated with variability in CYB5A transcript levels, with a trend toward the same association between b5R and CYB5R3. Although a sample with a novel coding SNP in CYB5A, His22Arg, was found with low reduction and b5 expression, no other SNPs in either gene were associated with outlier activity or protein expression. We conclude that b5 and b5R catalyze the reduction of 4-ABP-NHOH in breast tissue, with very low activity, protein, and messenger RNA expression in some samples, which cannot be attributed to promoter, coding, or 3'UTR SNPs. Further studies are underway to characterize the transcriptional regulation of CYB5A and CYB5R3 and begin to understand the mechanisms of individual variability in this detoxification pathway.
Evaluation of sulfonamide detoxification pathways in haematologic malignancy patients prior to intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Apr;71(4):566-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03889.x.
AIMS: Patients with haematologic malignancies have a reportedly high incidence of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) hypersensitivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether deficiencies in sulfonamide detoxification pathways, to include glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AA), and cytochrome b(5) (b5) and cytochrome b(5) reductase (b5R), were prevalent in these patients. A secondary pilot objective was to determine whether the incidence of drug hypersensitivity following intermittent trimethoprim-SMX (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis approached that reported for high dose daily regimens.
METHODS: Forty adult patients with haematologic malignancies (HM) and 35 healthy adults were studied; an additional 13 HM patients taking ascorbate supplements (HM-AA) were also evaluated. Twenty-two of 40 HM patients were prescribed and were compliant with TMP-SMX 960 mg three to four times weekly.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between HM and healthy groups in plasma AA (median 37.2 µm vs. 33.9 µm) or red blood cell GSH (1.9 mmvs. 1.8 mm). However, plasma AA was correlated significantly with leucocyte b5/b5R reduction (r= 0.39, P= 0.002). Deficient b5/b5R activities were not found in HM patients. In fact, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or myeloma had significantly higher median activities (80.7 µmol mg(-1) min(-1)) than controls (18.9 µmol mg(-1) min(-1), P= 0.008). After 3-4 weeks of treatment, no patients developed SMX-specific T cells and only one patient developed rash.
CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of blood antioxidants and b5/b5R reduction were not found in this population with haematologic malignancies, and the development of skin rash and drug-specific T cells appeared to be uncommon with intermittent TMP-SMX prophylaxis.
Clinical presentation of 26 anaplasma phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs residing in an endemic area
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2010 Nov-Dec;46(6):405-12. doi: 10.5326/0460405.
Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, the etiological agent of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, is capable of inciting moderate to severe clinical disease in a variety of mammals and is endemic in the upper midwest. The purpose of this study was fourfold: to describe the range of clinical signs in dogs seropositive to A. phagocytophilum; to examine the prevalence of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in this population; to evaluate whether specific clinical signs were associated with coexposure to Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi in actively infected dogs; and to determine whether clinical response to doxycycline was complete in treated dogs. Medical records of dogs seropositive for A. phagocytophilum were reviewed retrospectively. Peripheral blood smears were also reviewed retrospectively for granulocytic Anaplasma morulae. Lethargy (81%), inappetence (58%), and lameness (50%) were the most common clinical signs, followed by fever (46%). Thrombocytopenia was the most common laboratory abnormality, and IMHA was diagnosed in three dogs. Dogs that were thrombocytopenic and had antibodies to both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi had a median platelet count of 51,000/μL (range 20,000 to 171,000/μL), which was significantly lower than the count in dogs with antibodies only to A. phagocytophilum (P=0.04). Some dogs had an apparent relapse of clinical signs after an appropriate course of doxycycline. Testing for A. phagocytophilum by polymerase chain reaction, serum antibody assays, and/or blood smear evaluation should be considered in dogs with IMHA, cough, or epistaxis and that reside in A. phagocytophilum-endemic areas. If moderate to severe thrombocytopenia is present, testing for concurrent B. burgdorferi infection may be warranted.
Antifungal treatment of small animal veterinary patients
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010 Nov;40(6):1171-88. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2010.07.006.
Antifungal therapy has progressed significantly with the development of new drugs directed at various processes in fungal cell metabolism. Within veterinary medicine, treatment options for systemic mycoses remain limited to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole. However, newer triazoles, echinocandins, and lipid-based formulations of amphotericin B are now approved for use in humans. This article provides a comprehensive review of the antifungal medications available for veterinary patients, and includes a brief discussion of the newer, presently cost-prohibitive, antifungal therapies used for systemic mycoses in humans.
Combined ascorbate and glutathione deficiency leads to decreased cytochrome b5 expression and impaired reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine
Arch Toxicol. 2010 Aug;84(8):597-607. doi: 10.1007/s00204-010-0530-z. Epub 2010 Mar 11.
Sulfonamide antimicrobials such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) have been associated with drug hypersensitivity reactions, particularly in patients with AIDS. A reactive oxidative metabolite, sulfamethoxazole-nitroso (SMX-NO), forms drug-tissue adducts that elicit a T-cell response. Antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA) and glutathione (GSH) reduce SMX-NO to the less reactive hydroxylamine metabolite (SMX-HA), which is further reduced to the non-immunogenic parent compound by cytochrome b (5) (b5) and its reductase (b5R). We hypothesized that deficiencies in AA and GSH would enhance drug-tissue adduct formation and immunogenicity toward SMX-NO and that these antioxidant deficiencies might also impair the activity of the b5/b5R pathway. We tested these hypotheses in guinea pigs fed either a normal or AA-restricted diet, followed by buthionine sulfoximine treatment (250 mg/kg SC daily, or vehicle); and SMX-NO (1 mg/kg IP 4 days per week, or vehicle), for 2 weeks. Guinea pigs did not show any biochemical or histopathologic evidence of SMX-NO-related toxicity. Combined AA and GSH deficiency in this model did not significantly increase tissue-drug adduct formation, or splenocyte proliferation in response to SMX-NO. However, combined antioxidant deficiency was associated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome b (5), as well as significant decreases in SMX-HA reduction in SMX-NO-treated pigs. These results suggest that SMX-HA detoxification may be down-regulated in combined AA and GSH deficiency. This mechanism could contribute to the higher risk of SMX hypersensitivity in patients with AIDS with antioxidant depletion.
Acute vomiting in cats: rational treatment selection
J Feline Med Surg. 2010 Mar;12(3):225-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jfms.2010.01.005.
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: The control of nausea and vomiting in cats is important in order to prevent the development of food aversion, anorexia (with its associated complications of weight loss and dehydration), and hepatic lipidosis.
CLINICAL CHALLENGES: There are several antiemetic drugs that are clinically effective in cats. Making a rational choice from the available options requires knowledge of the likely cause of the vomiting, and the mechanisms of action and side effects of each drug. For example, a drug such as prochlorperazine, which can cause sedation, may be a useful first-line choice in a hospitalized cat that requires mild sedation to be handled, but would be undesirable in a critically ill cat.
AUDIENCE: For companion animal and feline practitioners, the vomiting cat is a common presentation.
EVIDENCE BASE: The guidance provided in this review draws on the findings of clinical trials in humans, experimental studies in cats, some clinical trials in cats, and clinical experience.
Cytochrome b5 and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase: genotype-phenotype correlations for hydroxylamine reduction
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010 Jan;20(1):26-37. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e3283343296.
OBJECTIVES: NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (b5) catalyze the reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA), which can contribute to sulfonamide hypersensitivity, to the parent drug sulfamethoxazole. Variability in hydroxylamine reduction could thus play a role in adverse drug reactions. The aim of this study was to characterize variability in SMX-HA reduction in 111 human livers, and investigate its association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in b5 and b5R cDNA.
METHODS: Liver microsomes were assayed for SMX-HA reduction activity, and b5 and b5R expression was semiquantified by immunoblotting. The coding regions of the b5 (CYB5A) and b5R (CYB5R3) genes were resequenced.
RESULTS: Hepatic SMX-HA reduction displayed a 19-fold range of individual variability (0.06-1.11 nmol/min/mg protein), and a 17-fold range in efficiency (Vmax/Km) among outliers. SMX-HA reduction was positively correlated with b5 and b5R protein content (P<0.0001, r=0.42; P=0.01, r=0.23, respectively), and expression of both proteins correlated with one another (P<0.0001; r=0.74). A novel cSNP in CYB5A (S5A) was associated with very low activity and protein expression. Two novel CYB5R3 SNPs, R59H and R297H, displayed atypical SMX-HA reduction kinetics and decreased SMX-HA reduction efficiency.
CONCLUSION: These studies indicate that although novel cSNPs in CYB5A and CYB5R3 are associated with significantly altered protein expression and/or hydroxylamine reduction activities, these low-frequency cSNPs seem to only minimally impact overall observed phenotypic variability. Work is underway to characterize polymorphisms in other regions of these genes to further account for individual variability in hydroxylamine reduction.